Study Guide Week 6

Study Guide Week 6 - TA: Victoria Ha Email: viha@ucsd.edu...

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TA: Victoria Ha Section: (B03) Monday 5:00-5:50pm Email: viha@ucsd.edu Office Hours: Thursday Hi Thai 2-3 Study Guide Week 6 Pages 975 – 994 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM CONT . Negative Feedback loop: main regulator of hormones The hormone binds to its target cells and results in a specific response. This response reduces the initial stimulus, so it involves negative feedback The acidic stomach contents need to be neutralized before entering the duodenum or else the low pH will damage the first part of the intestines. This pathway shows a negative feedback look that leads to the release of bicarbonate which neutralizes the low pH of the acidic stomach contents. BLOOD GLUCOSE MAINTAINENCE Insulin and glucagon hormones regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood o Insulin and glucagons are produced in the pancreas Insulin is released when there are high levels of glucose in the blood and stimulates glycogen formation and body cells to take up glucose from the blood decreasing blood glucose concentration o Insulin is the hormone that makes you fat because it stimulates the conversion of carbohydrates and glucose into fat o In the liver, insulin slows down glycogen breakdown to decrease the glucose levels o Brain cells can take up glucose without insulin By contrast, when glucose levels drop, glucagon stimulates glycogen breakdown and converts glycogen into glucose in the liver raising blood glucose concentration o Glucagons targets the liver, muscle cells and adipose tissue (body fat; loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes) o The liver and muscles store sugar as glycogen; adipose tissue convert sugars to fats o Liver breaks down glucagon glucose
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TA: Victoria Ha Section: (B03) Monday 5:00-5:50pm Email: viha@ucsd.edu Office Hours: Thursday Hi Thai 2-3 <70mg: HYPOglycemia (low blood glucose) 90-100mg: normal levels >100mg: HYPERglycemia (high blood glucose) PARATHYROID GLAND Four small structures located behind the thyroid gland releases parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase calcium levels o if low calcium levels then PTH is released o if there are high calcium levels then PTH is reduced Effects of PTH Bones: hard portion of bone is crystals of calcium phosphate hydroxide. PTH stimulates the bone to release calcium from the bone and to be more soluble so that it can uptake hydroxylapatite PTH + Vitamin D increase calcium uptake in the intestines Calcium is taken up by kidneys If there are low levels of calcium in the blood, this causes skeletal muscles to convulse and spasm tetany If there are high levels of calcium in blood, this causes precipitates of calcium phosphate to form in body tissues which leads to organ damage PINEAL GLAND Located above hypothalamus Secretes hormone called melatonin, which regulates sleep and wake cycles/ circadian rhythems
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TA: Victoria Ha Section: (B03) Monday 5:00-5:50pm Email: viha@ucsd.edu Office Hours: Thursday Hi Thai 2-3
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Study Guide Week 6 - TA: Victoria Ha Email: viha@ucsd.edu...

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