Study Guide Week 9

Study Guide Week 9 - TA Victoria Ha Email [email protected]

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TA: Victoria Ha Section: (B03) Monday 5:00-5:50 Email: [email protected] Office Hours: Thursday Hi Thai 2-3 Disclaimer: These notes are intended for you to supplement your studies. They are by no means a substitute for going to lecture!! Study Guide Week 9 Pages 962 – 972 in textbook 8 th edition Osmoregulation : the general process by which animals control solute concentrations and balance water gain and water loss -water enters and leaves cells by osmosis , the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane -It occurs when two solutions separated by a membrane differ in osmotic pressure. -Water flows from hypoosmotic (low solute concentration, high water concentration) to hyperosmotic (high solute concentration, low water concentration) -Animals maintain water balance in two ways. They can either be: Osmoconformer: isoosmotic with its surroundings Osmoregulator: controls its internal osmolarity independent of that of its environment -Two types of fish : Saltwater Fish: o Gain water and salt ions from food and drinking seawater o excrete salt ions from gills osmotic water loss through gills Freshwater Fish: o Exposed to hypertonic environment and tend to gain lots of water. In order to balance their osmolarity internally, they take up salt ions by gills. o Osmotic water gain through gills - Birds Take up lots of salt from food and their water source (sea water) In their nose is a nasal salt gland that secretes salt Their nasal gland has secretion cells that transport fluid into the duct that is countercurrent to the blood flow, which maintains the gradient of salt concentration and increases efficiency
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TA: Victoria Ha Section: (B03) Monday 5:00-5:50 Email: [email protected] Office Hours: Thursday Hi Thai 2-3 As blood flows in one direction, the salt concentration decreases in the blood and as the fluid flows in the other direction, the salt concentration increases in secretory tubule Metabolism generates wastes products. In all living organisms one of the main products of metabolism is protein, which are amino acids and these contain nitrogen and must be excreted One of the main ways to remove nitrogen is to remove the amine group from the amino acid 1. Ammonia (NH 3 ) o Mostly in fish o Very soluble in water, but very basic (toxic) o Marine animals that live in the ocean, the ammonia can freely diffuse out into the water o Land mammals cannot do this 2. Urea (contains 2 nitrogens) o Mostly in mammals o Very good way to get rid of nitrogen because its small o It’s very soluble in water o
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Study Guide Week 9 - TA Victoria Ha Email [email protected]

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