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Unformatted text preview: 1. The widespread speciation of Galapagos finches with different niches and food preference is an example of... a) artificial selection b) directional selection c) adaptive radiation d) stabilizing selection 2. The ability of genetic engineers to form transgenic crops by taking genes from bacteria and putting them into vegetable crops is due to... a) convergent evolution b) molecular homology c) structural homology d) homoplasy 3. Dietary carotenoids that change the coloration of male house finches is an example of... a) trait determined solely by genes b) phenotypic plasticity c) directional selection d) environmental variation 4. If the heritability of a trait is close to 1, that means that... a) most of the variation is explained by genetics b) phenotypic variation is greater than genetic variation c) the trait isn't very heritable d) the trait is less heritable than a trait with a value of .5 Refer to the table below for questions 5-7 Genotype # of individuals selection coefficient AA 460 0.1 Aa 480 0 aa 60 0.2 5. How many copies of A and a alleles are there, respectively? a) 1500, 500 b) 800,1200 c) 1400, 600 d) 1000, 1000 6. What are the frequencies of A and a, respectively? a) 0.3, 0.7 b) 0.5, 0.5 c) 0.7, 0.3 d) 0.2, 0.8 7. What are the relative fitness of each genotype (AA, Aa, aa) respectively? a) 0.9, 1, 0.8 b) 0.8, 0.9, 0.9 c) 1, 1.1, 1 d) 0.1, 0, 0.2 A B C D E 8. The group formed by taxa C, D, and E is a... a) monophyletic group b) polyphyletic group c) paraphyletic group 9. The group formed by taxa A, B, and C is a... a) monophyletic group b) polyphyletic group c) paraphyletic group 10. The group formed by taxa A, C, and D is a... a) monophyletic group b) polyphyletic group c) paraphyletic group 12. The group formed by taxa A, B, and E is a... a) monophyletic group b) polyphyletic group c) paraphyletic group 13. The group formed by taxa B, C, D, and E is a... a) monophyletic group b) polyphyletic group c) paraphyletic group 14. Suppose species C and D are species that shed their skin, but the other three species do not shed their skin. Then, most likely... a) skin shedding is an ancestral character for this entire (A-E) group b) skin shedding is a derived character for species group C and D c) non-shedding is a derived character for species E d) non-shedding evolved multiple times in this entire (A-E) group 15. The main difference between true mosses and club mosses is... a) club mosses are a more primitive, older type of plant b) club mosses have vascular tissue, a common feature in other land plants c) club mosses belong to gymnosperms while true mosses belong to bryophytes d) no difference, both are two species in the same species group 16. Unicellular eukaryotes were once classified as the kingdom
called _____, before it was determined that it was a ______ group a) animalia, polyphyletic b) animalia, paraphyletic c) protista, polyphyletic d) protists, paraphyletic 17. The main difference in angiosperm biology from more primitive plants (such as gymnosperms) was... a) the reduced gametophyte that depended on the sporophyte for nutrition b) development of seeds c) development of vascular tissue d) the evolution of seeds enclosed in ovaries and fruit 18. The similarities between the bird wings and bat wings is due to the process of _____, and is an example of _______ a) convergent evolution, homoplasy b) inheritance from a common ancestor, synapomorphy c) convergent evolution, homology d) inheritance from common ancestor, homoplasy 19. Which is NOT an example of evidence that supports the endosymbiotic theory? a) mitochondria have their own DNA b) all eukaryotes have chloroplasts or their remnants c) mitochondria and chloroplasts have similarities in membrane function with bacteria d) mitochondria and chloroplasts have machinery to produce proteins 20. The material supporting cell walls in fungi is ______ a) chitin b) cellulose c) mycelium d) starch 21. The main difference that distinguishes hyphae in fungi from roots in plants is.... a) hyphae are better carbon sequesters while roots in plants absorb nutrients better b) hyphae compose both the underground mycelium and the above ground fruiting body c) roots can sometimes form a continuous line of cells with no cell walls while hyphae cannot d) in plant-fungi symbiosis, hyphae help plants absorb more carbon while roots help fungi absorb nutrients 22. Which of the following is NOT a eumetazoan? a) cnidarians b) echinoderms c) chordates d) porifera 23. Lophotrochozoa... a) include familiar animals like mollusks b) all use a lophophore for feeding c) contains less phyla's than ecdysozoa d) are true deuterostomes 24. Which is NOT true of arthropods? a) all have an exoskeleton b) have a generally conserved number of body segments c) include insects and spiders d) they have limbs that have been specialized for a variety of functions 25. On the December solstice, the sun is directly over... a) the equator b) the tropic of cancer c) the tropic of Capricorn d) none of the above 26. A mountain range that creates a rain shadow forming a desert is an example of... a) seasonal variation b) local topography influencing climate c) global circulation d) maritime influence on climate 27. Which of the following is NOT true about biomes? a) vegetation is the main defining characteristic b) boundaries between biomes are usually well-defined c) marine biomes are less based on climate and more based on proximity to continents d) Mediterranean-type biomes are one of the least common biomes 28. What is the ultimate result of having too frequent fires in a Mediterranean type ecosystem? a) woody vegetation remains but never gets old enough to produce seeds b) weeds dominate a few years after the fire but are replaced by woody vegetation c) alternating selection between grasslands and woody chaparral d) weeds/non-native grasses take over and become the dominant vegetation 29. Which of the following is true about population densities and dispersion? a) Mark/recapturing methods can only be used to determine dispersion characteristics b) organisms can show different dispersion characteristics at different spatial scales c) species with uniform dispersion are often social animals d) random dispersion is due to negative density interactions 30. In a stable age distribution... a) the geometric growth rate eventually becomes constant b) populations experience cycles of erratic and stable growth c) death rates can fluctuate, but not birth rates d) age classes can grow at different rates as long as they each stay constant 31. Dying after a single reproduction is a trade-off for ________ organisms. One benefit to this lifestyle is ____. a) semelparous; matching reproduction to favorable environmental conditions b) iteroparous; saturation of offspring to potential predators c) iteroparous; reduced cost of reproduction d) semelparous; reduced fraction of resources spent on reproduction Lecture 14 32. A population will increase over time as long as... a) the death rate is higher than the birth rate b) r is not negative c) the population has reached K d) as long as (b-d) is a positive number 33. A population of 1000 mice grows at a rate of 2%. If the per capita birth rate is .08, how many mice per 1000 die? a) 6 b) 20 c) 60 d) 80 34. As r increases, a) doubling time decreases b) birth rate (b) always increases c) dN/dt decreases d) a population is still growing but not necessarily faster 35. Which of these factors would most likely NOT play a role in regulating carrying capacity, K? a) food resources b) hurricane c) disease d) predator population size 36. In the source-sink model, which of the following subpopulation characteristics describes a "source"? a) growth rate (dN/dt) greater than 0 b) prevents extinction by receiving immigrants c) r greater than 0 d) growth rate (dN/dt) less than 1 but greater than 0 Lecture 15 Questions 37. If an organism's fundamental and realized niche are the same, then... a) it is not a good competitor b) removing one of its competitors will allow it to expand its niche c) it inhabits every possible condition it can live in d) it doesn't undergo intraspecific competition 38. Which of the following is NOT true of the barnacle interspecific competition model? a) both species' upper limits are determined by abiotic factors b) chthalamus is a superior competitor to balanus c) when balanus was removed, chthalamus realized niche increased to fill its fundamental niche d) balanus fundamental and realized niche are the same regardless of the presence of chthalamus 39. Imagine two insects are infected: Insect A with a parasitic mite and insect B with the larvae of a wasp parasitoid. Which of the following is most likely? a) insect A will die from the infection while B will most likely not b) insect B will be consumed while A will not c) both insects will eventually die from their infection d) insect B will probably have a higher number of parasitoids than insect A's parasites 40. Which of the following is true in both parasitoid/prey and predator/prey relationships? a) both show cyclical population behaviors b) parasitoids generally consume more of their prey than predators c) predators consume prey slower than parasitoids d) only predator/prey is a +/- relationship 41. Modern reef forming corals have endosymbionts called zooxanthellae that provide the coral with sugars in exchange for nutrients and protection. In the phenomenon called coral bleaching, environmental factors cause the coral to expel the endosymbionts. If they are not restored soon, both partners end up dying. This is an example of... a) facultative mutualism b) obligate mutualism c) commensalism d) competition lecture 16-17 42. On the Aleutian Islands, vegetation is dominated by ______ on fox containing islands because_____ a) shrubs; foxes eat seabirds that would normally graze on shrubs b) grasses; foxes eat seabirds that would normally graze on grasses c) shrubs; foxes eat seabirds that would normally provide nutrients for grasses d) grasses; foxes cause a trophic cascade that eliminates shrubs and favors grasses 43. Open oceans make up the largest percentage of earths primary production because... a) they are by far the largest ecosystem type b) they are on of the most productive ecosystems by unit area c) they are an intermediate in terms of productivity per unit area compared to other ecosystem types, but there large area makes them the most productive d) they don't; tropical wet forests make up the largest percentage of earth's primary production 44. In the Antarctic sea, oceanographers added raw iron (Fe) in the ocean and then tracked the water mass. Over the course of several weeks they saw an increase in primary production in that water mass. Which of the following statements explains this phenomenon? a) in this case, primary productivity was limited by a combination of nutrients, light, and temperature b) iron was not a limiting nutrient but its addition still added increased productivity c) addition of any important nutrient (like Nitrogen or Phosphorous) will increase productivity in an oceanic environment d) Iron is behaving as the limiting nutrient in this system 45. Which of the following is true of the energetic hypothesis? a) it states that fluctuations at lower levels of food chain cause extinctions at higher trophic levels b) because energy transfers up to the next trophic level are so inefficient, there isn't enough energy to support a high number of trophic levels c) it says that a more constant and non-varying supply of energy at lower levels will ultimately allow for more trophic levels d) it states that a highly productive environment will have less trophic links than a less productive one 46. In the Hubbard-Brooks experiment, compared to the control, the clear-cut forest.. a) had more inputs than outputs and there was a net gain in nutrients in that system b) had a higher nutrient concentration in run-off water compared to control forest c) showed that vegetation is key to locking up nutrients in a system d) both B and C are correct 47. One main difference between water and other nutrient cycles is... a) water cycle is not as threatened by anthropogenic forces as other cycles are b) water cycles is controlled by abiotic factors while nutrient cycles are mostly controlled by biotic factors c) largest water compartment is the ocean, while all of the other largest nutrient compartments are terrestrial d) plant don't play an important role in water cycle as they do in other nutrient cycles ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2012 for the course BILD 3 taught by Professor Wills during the Fall '07 term at UCSD.
- Fall '07