Unformatted text preview: Mid‐Term Exam (Spring 2012) Business & Professional Ethics Rutgers University (Newark) Dr. David E. McClean, Instructor This exam is divided into two parts. The first part contains twenty multiple choice questions, and it is worth 60 points. The second part contains one essay question, and it is worth 40 points. Your response to the essay question will be graded on the correctness of the answer and the quality of your analysis and writing. You should answer the essay question in a Word document. Return the answer sheet and Word file containing your essay to me no later than Midnight, Thursday, March 1st . Late exams will not be accepted. E‐mail your completed exams to [email protected] Part One 1. What are the “Three Myths of Business,” as outlined by the instructor? 1. Business ethics is not required, businesses exist to serve customers, businesses exist to serve their owner 2. Business ethics is an oxymoron, businesses exist to serve their customers, businesses should not be concerned with profits 3. There is an ontological split between the public and the private, business ethics is an oxymoron, businesses exist to make a profit 4. None of the above 2. According to the instructor, when considering ethical theories this fundamental question runs throughout all such considerations: 1. Does the theory make people better in their practices? 2. Does the theory jibe with other theories? 3. What has to matter? 4. Is the theory concerned with real consequences? 3. According to the Supreme Court, which of the following cannot be the basis of a “Bona Fide Occupational Qualification” or “BFOQ”? 1. Sex 2. National Origin 3. Religion 4. Race 4. “Normative Ethics” is concerned with 1. The existing social norms 2. Normal ways of deciding hard cases 3. Duty based approaches to ethics 4. What we really ought to do as determined by reasoning or moral argument 5. The following statement explicates Rule Utilitarianism: 1. Act so as to increase the overall pleasure of society 2. Act in accordance with rules that you can will to be universal laws, applicable to all 3. An action is right if and only if it conforms to a set of rules the general acceptance of which would produce the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for all 4. An action is right if and only if it conforms to a set of rules the general acceptance of which would produce the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for most 6. Identify the person who said: “Property is the most ambiguous of categories. It covers a multitude of rights which have nothing in common except that they are exercised by persons and enforced by the State” (Use various sources to get the correct answer) 1. Justice Louis Brandeis 2. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes 3. John Locke 4. R.H. Tawney 7. Only one of the following can be a whistle‐blower 1. An outside vendor 2. An outside accountant 3. The party to an arm’s‐length contract 4. An employee working at a satellite office overseas 8. The “Difference Principle” is best associated with 1. John Locke 2. John Rawls 3. Adam Smith 4. Robert Nozick 9. By seeking only personal gain, each individual is “led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention.” This idea is best associated with: 1. Aristotle 2. Immanuel Kant 3. Adam Smith 4. Kenneth Goodpaster 10. The “categorical imperative” is best associated with: 1. Aristotle 2. W.D. Ross 3. Immanuel Kant 4. None of the above 11. It is “The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” This is best associated with: 1. John Stuart Mill 2. Richard Rorty 3. Sissela Bok 4. None of the above 12. According to Boatright, a bona fide conflict of interest exists when: 1. There are conflicting interests 2. A person places his employment interests against the employment interests of another 3. An obligation to act in another person’s interest conflicts with one’s own personal interests 4. Two goods come into conflict with one another 13. What established that trade secrets are not merely a question of property rights? 1 The Supreme Court in Griswold v. Connecticut 2. The Supreme Court in the Clara Watson case 3. The Supreme Count in the Associate Press case 4. The Supreme Court in Griggs v. Duke Power 14. The case that is often looked to as establishing that there is a right to privacy supported by the Constitution is: 1. Griswold v. Connecticut 2. Aderand Constructors v. Pena 3. Bakke v. Regents of the University of California 4. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission 15. “Disparate Treatment” and “Disparate Impact” 1. Are terms that pertained to the effect that GM had on Flint, MI in the film Roger & Me 2. Pertain to the impact of pollution on residential communities 3. Are terms that pertain to discrimination 4. None of the above 16. The “Halo Effect” is a phenomenon that pertains to: 1. Environmental pollution standards 2. Assuming the honesty of employees without background checks 3. Sexual preference in hiring practices 4. Employer bias and discrimination 17. A Whistleblower should be concerned with (among other things) 1. Where he or she lives 2. The need to protect his or her boss 3. Whether he or she has all the facts and properly understands them 4. None of the above 18. According to the court’s decision in Wexler v. Greenberg, an employer has the burden of showing, among other things: 1. That the employee was acting in an ultra vires manner 2. That a legally protectable trade secret existed 3. That the employee intended to steal trade secrets 4. That the employee knew that divulging sensitive information to others would do harm to his employer 19. In Watson v. Fort Worth Bank & Trust, the Supreme Court held that: 1. Disparate impact analysis may be applied to a subjective or discretionary promotion system 2. That there was no basis for a finding of discrimination 3. That the bank had in fact acted appropriately in denying the promotion 4. The government has no interest in the promotions of employees of private corporations 20. “The point of justice is not to promote human well‐being or to achieve a state of equality; it is to protect our rights. Because a market system does this better than any other form of economic organization, it is just.” Who argued for this libertarian view? A. Ralph Nader B. John Snow C. Robert Ruben D. Robert Nozick Part Two ‐ Essay Essay question: How would Robert Nozick address the issue of executive pay (compensation), in view of so much criticism that executives get paid too much? What might some arguments against his position be? (Limit your response to no more than one page, but be thorough. ...
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