m1l2 - Module 1 Objectives and Methods of Analysis and...

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Module 1 Objectives and Methods of Analysis and Design, and Properties of Concrete and Steel Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
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Lesson 2 Properties of Concrete and Steel Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
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Instructional Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: know the properties of concrete in respect of strength, deformation and durability know the properties of steel used as reinforcement in concrete structures understand the importance of quality control, inspection and testing of concrete and steel in several steps from its basic preparation to the removal of formwork after the construction recommend the acceptance of good concrete based on sample test of specimens, core tests, load test and non-destructive tests 1.2.1 Introduction It is essential that the designer has to acquire a fair knowledge of the materials to be used in the design of reinforced concrete structure. This lesson summarises the characteristic properties of concrete and steel, the two basic materials used for the design. This summary, though not exhaustive, provides the minimum information needed for the design. 1.2.2 Properties of Concrete Plain concrete is prepared by mixing cement, sand (also known as fine aggregate), gravel (also known as coarse aggregate) and water with specific proportions. Mineral admixtures may also be added to improve certain properties of concrete. Thus, the properties of concrete regarding its strength and deformations depend on the individual properties of cement, sand, gravel, water and admixtures. Clauses 5 and 6 of IS 456:2000 stipulate the standards and requirements of the individual material and concrete, respectively. Plain concrete after preparation and placement needs curing to attain strength. However, plain concrete is very good in compression but weak in tension. That is why steel is used as reinforcing material to make the composite sustainable in tension also. Plain concrete, thus when reinforced with steel bars in appropriate locations is known as reinforced concrete. The strength and deformation characteristics of concrete thus depend on the grade and type of cement, aggregates, admixtures, environmental conditions and curing. The increase of strength with its age during curing is considered to be marginal after 28 days. Blended cements (like fly ash cement) have slower rate of strength gain than ordinary Portland cement as recognized by code, Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
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Depending on several factors during its preparation, placement and curing, concrete has a wide range of compressive strength and the material is graded on the basis of its compressive strength on 28 th day also known as "characteristic strength" as defined below while discussing various strength and deformation properties. (a)
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m1l2 - Module 1 Objectives and Methods of Analysis and...

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