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Lecture4 - Lecture 4 Biological Molecules BIOL 211 Winter...

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Lecture 4: Biological Molecules 1 BIOL 211 Winter 2012
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Important things coming up Print out lab handout for Lab 2 from course website Pre-lab 2 - due Thursday 1/12 at the beginning of lab Exam 1 January 18 th 8-9am No scantron required Lecture afterwards (sorry guys) Study guide up by the 14 th BIOL 211 Winter 2012 2
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Last class… Why does the intestine have a basic pH? What does it mean when something is solvated? BIOL 211 Winter 2012 3
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Carbon skeletons A common practice in chemistry is to draw a ‘shorthand’ version of organic molecules There is a carbon atom at each junction between bonds in a chain and at the end of each bond (unless there is something else there already - like an -OH group) There are enough hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon to make the total number of bonds on that carbon up to 4 Hydrogens aren’t explicitly drawn out BIOL 211 Winter 2012 4 =
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BIOL 211 Winter 2012 5 = = http://www.odu.edu/~rfdias/che m311/03LANGUAGE.pdf Primer on writing organic molecules:
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In this lecture… Macromolecules Monomers and polymers The four classes of biological molecules Lipids Saturated, unsaturated, trans fats Phospholipids Steroids Carbohydrates Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Proteins Amino acids Primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary structure Nucleic acids Nucleotides DNA and RNA 6 BIOL 211 Winter 2012
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The four classes of biological molecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids These are macromolecules - large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms Molecular structure dictates function “Macro” = “large” All four classes are organic molecules! Not all organic molecules are part of one of the four classes of biological molecules! 7 BIOL 211 Winter 2012
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What do macromolecules look like? 8 BIOL 211 Winter 2012
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What do they do? Type of macromolecule Example Function Lipids Fat Cell membranes, energy storage Carbohydrates Starch, sugar Energy storage, structure Nucleic acids DNA, RNA Store genetic material Proteins Trypsin Cell machinery 9 BIOL 211 Winter 2012
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Polymer - a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks Monomer the building block Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids 10 BIOL 211 Winter 2012
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Polymers and monomers BIOL 211 Winter 2012 11 (of both nonbiological type) Monomer Polymer
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Polymers and monomers BIOL 211 Winter 2012 12 (of the nonbiological type) A monomer is a single pattern repeated over and over. It can be composed of many atoms Nylon monomer Nylon polymer Nylon polymer
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BIOL 211 Winter 2012 13 Kevlar Polyethylene
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Creating and breaking down polymers BIOL 211 Winter 2012 14 Dehydration/condensation reaction - two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Hydrolysis two bonded monomers split apart using a water molecule
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Figure 5.2
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