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Unformatted text preview: 1 Milk Background Milk is a nutritive beverage obtained from various animals and consumed by humans. Most milk is obtained from dairy cows, although milk from goats, sheep, water buffalo, and reindeer is also used in various parts of the world. In the United States, and in many industrialized countries, raw milk is processed before it is consumed. History The use of milk as a beverage probably began with the domestication of animals. Goats and sheep were domesticated in the area now known as Iran and Afghanistan in about 9000 B.C., and by about 7000 B.C. cattle were being herded in what is now Turkey and parts of Africa. The method for making cheese from milk was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and the use of milk and milk products spread throughout Europe in the following centuries. 2 USA Milk History • With the development of the dairy industry in the United States, a variety of machines for processing milk were also developed. • In 1856, Gail Borden patented a method for making condensed milk by heating it in a partial vacuum. Not only did his method remove much of the water so the milk could be stored in a smaller volume, but it also protected the milk from germs in the air. • Borden opened a condensed milk plant and cannery during the Civil War, and his condensed milk was used by Union troops and its popularity spread. Peter J Shields • Peter J. Shields has been acknowledged as the moving force behind the Act of California Legislature establishing the Davis Campus. • At thirty-eight, he was elected to the superior bench in Sacramento. Judge Shields developed a fine and well-known herd of Jersey cattle, which were widely exhibited and won many prizes. Up until several years before his death, well into his nineties, he could be found at the State Fair judging ring on Jersey Day. • As one of the founders of the Davis Campus, he maintained a life-long interest in it. In 1939 a Peter J. Shields scholarship fund was established and in 1955 he was the recipient of an LLD degree from the University. The main library is known as Shields Library and the street running along its north side is Peter J. Shields Avenue. Judge Peter J. Shields passed away September 28, 1962, at the age of one hundred years. World ¡ s Milk Consumption & Production Top Ten Milk Consumers — 2006 Per Capita Consumption Country Liters Cheese (kg) Butter(kg) Finland 184 19 5.3 Sweden 146 18 1.0 Ireland 130 10 2.9 Netherlands 123 20 3.3 Norway 117 16 4.3 Spain 119 10 1.0 Switzerland 112 22 5.6 United Kingdom 111 12 3.7 Australia 106 12 3.7 Canada 95 12 3.3 France 68 23 8.8 Top Ten Milk Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) India 91,940 United States 80,264 China 32,179 Russia 31,144 Pakistan 29,672 Germany 28,487 France 26,133 Brazil 23,455 United Kingdom 14,577 New Zealand 14,500 California Milk Production • California leads nation in milk production • Today, 1000 ¡ s of cows per modern dairy • Cows milked 3 times a day • Milk cooled to 36°F in 30 seconds...
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