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Circuit-slide-17 - Electromagnetic Waves in Material Media...

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Electromagnetic Waves in Material Media In a material medium free charges may be present , which generate a current under the influence of the wave electric field . The current J c is related to the electric field E through the conductivity σ as The material may also have specific relative values of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability
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Maxwell’s equations become In phasor notation, it is as if the material conductivity introduces an imaginary part for the dielectric constant ε . The wave equation for the phasor electric field is given by We have assumed that the net charge density is zero , even if a conductivity is present, so that the electric field divergence is zero.
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In 1-D the wave equation is simply with general solution These resemble the voltage and current solutions in lossy transmission lines.
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The intrinsic impedance of the medium is defined as For the propagation constant , one can obtain the real and imaginary parts as
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Phase velocity and wavelength
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