51939183-Chapter-12-Antebellum-Culture-and-Reform-FULL

51939183-Chapter-12-Antebellum-Culture-and-Reform-FULL -...

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1 David Willmore AP US - Pd. 5 3 January, 2011 Antebellum Culture and Reform Brinkley Chapter 12 Outline Chapter Summary: By the 1820s, America was caught up in the spirit of a new age, and Americans, who had never been shy in proclaiming their nation's promise and potential, concluded that the time for action had come. Excited by the nation's technological advances and territorial expansion, many set as their goal the creation of a society worthy to be part of it all. What resulted was an outpouring of reform movements, the like of which had not been seen before and has not been seen since. Unrestrained by entrenched conservative institutions and attitudes, these reformers attacked society's ills wherever they found them, producing in the process a list of evils so long that many were convinced that a complete reorganization of society was necessary. Most, however, were content to concentrate on their own particular cause; thus, at least at first, the movements were many and varied. But in time, most reformers seemed to focus on one evil that stood out above the rest. The "peculiar institution," slavery, denied all the Enlightenment ideals for which they stood ί૿ equality, opportunity, and, above all, freedom. With world opinion on their side, Slavery became the supreme cause. Points for Discussion 1. During this period, how did American intellectuals create a national culture committed to the liberation of the human spirit? How did their efforts relate to the efforts of social reformers? 2. How did the spirit of romanticism influence American culture from the 1820s through the 1850s? How might a "realist" respond to the philosophy of the transcendentalists? 3. What role did religion and religious leaders play in the reform movement described in this chapter? 4. What goals prompted the founding of experimental communities in nineteenth-century America? Why did some communities, such as Brook Farm and New Harmony, fail and others, especially the Mormons, succeed? 5. Who were the major critics of slavery? On what grounds did they attack the institution and what means to end it did they propose? 6. How did the reform movement affect the status of women? What role did women play in these efforts to change society and what were they able to accomplish? 7. What role did education play in the creation of a national culture committed to the liberation of the human spirit? 8. Discuss how and why the antislavery movement in America changed during the course of the nineteenth century. Analyze the reasons for and the results of the internal strains and divisions that characterized abolitionism. 9. Explain how sentimental novels of the era "gave voice to both female hopes and female anxieties." Identify the significance of the following Terms and Concepts: 1. Cultural Nationalism 2. Hudson River School 3. Southern Romanticism 4. Transcendentalism 5. Civil Disobedience 6. Brook Farm, New Harmony, Oneida 7. Millennialism 8. Mormons 9. Second Great Awakening/Revivalism 10. “Burned-over district” 11. Unitarianism Willmore 1
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2 12. Shakers 13.
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