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Chapter 3 book notes - CHAPTER 3 ATTENTION CONCIOUSNESS I...

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CHAPTER 3: ATTENTION & CONCIOUSNESS I. The Nature of Attention & Consciousness A. Attention : the means by which we actively process a limited amount of information from the enormous amount of information available through our senses, our stored memories, and our other cognitive process B. Consciousness : includes the feeling of awareness and the content of awareness, some of which may be under the focus of attention C. Conscious attention – 1. serves to help monitoring our interactions with the environment – we maintain our awareness of how well we are adapting to the situation in which we find ourselves 2. assists us in linking our past and our present to give us a sense of continuity of experience 3. helps us in controlling and planning for our future actions D. Preconscious Processing - includes stored memories that we are not using at given time but we could summon when needed 1. how to study outside conscious awareness? a. priming : occurs when recognition of certain stimuli is affected by prior presentation of the same or similar stimuli example: someone is talking to you about how much he has enjoyed watching television since buying a satellite dish. Later hear the word dish, more likely to think of satellite dish than the dish served at dinner i) Mostly priming is positive i) Some can be negative which may impede later recognition (like presenting information in a noisy background) b. tip of the tongue phenomenon : which we try to remember something that is known to be stored in memory but that cannot readily be retrieved c. observed in people who have lesions in some areas of the visual cortex i) blindsight: traces of visual perceptual ability in blind areas E. Controlled vs. Automatic Process Many cognitive processes may be differentiated in terms of whether they do or do not require conscious control 1. automatic processes: involves no conscious control; performed without conscious awareness but may be aware that you are performing them; demand little or no effect or even intention; a. concealed with consciousness b. unintentional c. consume few attentional resources d. slips are often involve errors in automatic process i) most likely to occur when we deviate from a routine and automatic process inappropriately override intentional controlled process ii) our automatic processes are interrupted – usually a result of external events or data e. less likely to slip when we receive appropriate feedback from the environment 2. controlled processes: are accessible to conscious control and even require it; performed serially; occurs sequentially, one step at a time; relatively long time to execute 3.
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