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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 4 PERCEPTION Perception: the set of processes by which we recognize, organize, and make sense of the sensations set of processes by which we recognize, organize and make sense of the sensations we receive from environmental stimuli I. From Sensation to Representation *table 4.1* A. James Gibson provided a useful framework for studying perception. He introduced the concepts of distal object, informational medium, proximal stimulation and perceptual object 1. distal object: object in the external world 2. information medium: event imposes a pattern; the reflected light, soundwaves, chemical molecules or tactile information coming from the environment 3. proximal (near) simulation: when the information comes into contact with the appropriate sensory receptors of the eyes, ears, nose, skin, or mouth. 4. perception occurs when an internal perceptual object in some way reflects the properties of the external world B. Perceptual Constancies : occurs when our perception of an object remains the same even when our proximal sensation of the distal object changes- the perception remains constant although the proximal sensation changes 1. size constancy : the perception that an object maintains the same size despite changes in the size of the proximal stimulus. a. the size of an image of the retina depends directly on the distance of that object from the eye 2. shape constancy : relates to the perception of distances; the perception that an object maintains the same shape despite changes in the shape of the proximal stimulus- an object’s perceived shape remains the same despite changes in its orientation and hence in the shape of its retinal image C. Depth Perception 1. depth: the distance from a surface & usually using our own body as a reference surface a. monocular depth cues: can be represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eye example: texture gradients, relative size, interposition, linear perspective, aerial perspective, location in the picture plane and motion parallax b. binocular depth cues: based on the receipt of sensory information in three dimensions from both eyes- utilize the relative positioning of your eyes- the two eyes are position far enough to provide two kinds of information: binocular disparity (your two eyes send increasingly differing images to your brain as objects approach you) and binocular convergence (two eyes increasingly turn inward as objects approach you) D. Approaches to object and form perception 1. viewer centered vs. object centered approaches a. viewer centered representation : the individual stores the way the object looks to him or...
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- Fall '12