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CHAPTER 6 MEMORY PROCESS I. Encoding and Transfer of Information A. Forms of Encoding 1. Short-Term Storage a. we seem to encode visually presented letters by how they sound, not by how they look (Conrad Experiment – letters that were confused were those that sound alike not look alike) b. Conrad Experiment ~ shows the importance in short-term memory of an acoustic code rather than a visual code ~ semantic code : based on word meaning - he compared recall performance for lists of confusable words (map, cab, mad, man and cap) with lists of acoustically distinct words (cow, pit, day, rig and bun) c. initial encoding is primarily acoustic in nature 2. Long Term Storage a. most information stored in long term memory seems to be primarily semantically encoded (by the meanings of words) b. Grossman & Eagle - participants learned a list of 41 different words, 5 minutes after learning took place, participants were given a recognition test - included in these test were distracter; items that appear to be legitimate choices but that are not correct alternatives c. evidence also of visual encoding - participants received 16 drawings of objects, including four items of clothing, four animals, four vehicles and four items of furniture - investigator manipulated not only the semantic category but also the visual - the drawings differed in visual orientation; angled to the left, right horizontal, and vertical - items were presented in random order, participants were asked to recall them freely, the order of participants responses showed effects of both semantic and visual categories d. acoustic information can be encoded in long-term memory 3. Transfer of Information from Short-Term Memory to Long-Term Memory a. the means of moving information depends on whether the information involves declarative or nondeclarative memory are highly volatile and decay quickly example: priming and habituation b. other nondeclarative forms are maintained more readily, as a result of repeated practice or repeated conditioning example: procedural memory and simple classical conditioning c. entrance into long-term declarative memory, various processes are involved i. deliberately attending to information to comprehend it ii. making connections or associations between the new information and what we already know and understand – we make connections by integrating the new data into our existing schemas of stored information – Consolidation ~ during the process of consolidation, our memory is susceptible to disruption and distortion d. metamemory: strategies involve reflecting on our own memory processes with a view to improving our memory ~ such strategies are important when we are transferring new information to long term memory by rehearsing it ~ are just one component of metacogntion (our ability to think about and control our own processes of thought and ways of enhancing our thinking)
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4. Rehearsal : technique people use for keeping information active, the repeated recitation of an
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