CHAPTER7 - CHAPTER 7: Representation & Manipulation of...

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I. Mental Representation of knowledge A. declarative knowledge : knowledge of facts that can be stated (date of birth, name of your best friend) B. procedural knowledge: knowledge of procedures that can be implemented (steps involved in typing your shoelaces, adding a column of numbers or driving a car) C. cognitive psychologist have made extensive use of rationalist insights as a starting point for understanding cognition 1. seek some kind of empirical support for the insights proposed in rationalist accounts of cognition 2. two main sources of empirical data on knowledge representation a. standard laboratory experiments i. indirectly study knowledge representation ii. do so by observing how people handle various cognitive task that require the manipulation of mentally represented knowledge b. neuropsychological studies i. observe how the normal brain responds to various cognitive tasks involving knowledge representation ii. observe the links between various deficits in knowledge representation and associated pathologies in the brain D. external representations: pictures vs. words 1. symbolic representation : that the relationship between the word and what it represents is simply arbitrary, nothing inherently catlike about the word 2. pictures aptly capture concrete and spatial information in a manner analogous to whatever they represent a. convey all features simultaneously 3. words handily capture abstract and categorical information in a manner that is symbolic of whatever they represent a. convey information sequentially E. Mental Imagery 1. imagery : the mental representation of things that are not currently being sensed by the sense organs a. may involve mental representations in any of the sensory modalities, such as hearing, smell or taste 2. we use visual images to solve problems and to answer questions involving objects (which is darker red, a cherry or an apple)
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F. Dual Code Theory: Analogical Images vs. Symbols 1. we use both imagined and verbal codes for representing information - two codes organize information into knowledge that can be acted on, stored somehow and even later retrieved for subsequent use 2. mental images are analogue codes (form of knowledge representation that preserves the main perceptual features of whatever is being represented for the physical stimuli we observe in our environment) 3. symbolic code : form of knowledge representation that has been chosen arbitrarily to stand for something and that does not perceptually resemble whatever is being represented 4. verbal information seems to be processed differently than is imagine information a. one study , participants were shown both a rapid sequence of pictures and a sequence of words -- then were asked to recall the words or the pictures in one of two ways -- one way was at random, so that they recalled as many as possible, regardless of the order in which the items were presented . The other way was the
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2012 for the course PSYCHOLOGY V89.0029 taught by Professor Hilford during the Fall '12 term at NYU.

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CHAPTER7 - CHAPTER 7: Representation & Manipulation of...

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