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Chapter 10 Outline - Chapter 10 Outline Do Transnational...

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Chapter 10 Outline Do Transnational Advocacy Networks Make a Difference? Transnational advocacy networks (TANs)- a set of individuals and nongovernmental organizations acting in pursuit of a normative objective. Nongovernmental organizations (NGO’s)- private organizations not directly affiliated with national governments and usually focusing on social, economic, and political change in a country or region. TANS have grown dramatically over the past 50 years Nearly all the issues that mobilize individuals into politics within states now have an international counterpart. o Planned Parenthood has countless affiliations with groups overseas TANS coordinate the activities of participants around the globe and initiate, lead, and actively direct collective action on issues of concern. A. Changing Minds, Altering Interests TANs have the power to alter perceived interests and to change behavior at the individual and state level. They bring new knowledge to public attention o Greenpeace and Al Gore’s Alliance for Climate Protection spread awareness on global warming. TANs increase public awareness, making new public pressures on the political agenda. Expert consensus can call attention to new problems and point to possible solutions, but groups negatively affected by the proposed policy change will also mobilize politically to influence government decisions. o Scientists said smoking was bad before the industries and lobbyists would admit it. TANS also change how actors conceive of their interests by creating new norms- standards of behavior for actors with a given identity; norms define what actors are “right” or appropriate under particular circumstances. o Wearing clothes in public o Laws of war in the Geneva Conventions o Nuclear Taboo Norms are most easily observed when they are violated. o Airplane crash forcing Uruguay Rugby players to eat their dead teammates… what do you think?! YUCKY! Well, they ate other things like the leather seats before they went to their friends so I guess its cool. o G.W. Bush’s efforts to create a new category of detainee called “enemy combats” who he claimed weren’t apart of the Geneva Conventions Norms affect behavior, and in turn, political outcomes by raising the costs of inappropriate actions and thereby making them less likely.
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B. Norms Life Cycle Not all norms are connected with TANs and their activities. Once important function of TANs is to encourage and support socially appropriate behavior and help spread norms across national borders. Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, created a three stage norms life cycle- shows how norms diffuse with a population and achieve a “taken-for-granted” status o In the first stage, norms entrepreneurs —individuals or groups with strong beliefs about desirable behavior—actively work to convince a critical mass of other individuals to embrace their beliefs.
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