Cognition - Cognition: Lecture 3/5/2012 Cognition- refers...

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Cognition: Lecture 3/5/2012 Cognition- refers to the mental processes- perception, deciding, memory, thought, and language that together produce knowledge. Thinking- information in memory is manipulated and transformed through thinking o When we think we often use concepts and categories Artificial concepts- formal concepts that can be clearly defined by a set of rules (fruit, furniture, etc.) Natural concepts- causal or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise set of properties (games, automobiles, etc.) Don’t have clear and definite rules o How do we know what does and doesn’t fit a given concept? Positive and negative instances Feedback: yes this is a bus, not this is a car Systematic or formal approaches What defines a bird and what defines a bat? Prototypes- an example that embodies the most common and typical feature of the concept. Example: think of a typical bird (robin); usually isn’t a penguin or ostrich Exemplars → embodies personal experiences Reasoning o Inductive - from specific to general Bigger idea from a specific example o Deductive - from general to specific Problem Solving o Trial and Error- simplest strategy; inefficient Eventually you run out of trials o Algorithms- step by step procedure that guarantees a solution Can sometimes involve too many steps o Heuristics- mental shortcuts or rules of thumb We don’t like to think, it takes too much work; so if we just have a general rule that usually works we will use it EX. Idea of working backwards to solve a problem o Analogies - using an old solution for a new problem o Insight - that “a-ha” moment; we have been working on a solution for quite a while it just took some time to get into our conscious awareness. Errors in Problem Solving o Impediments to problem solving: mental stumbling blocks
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o Sometimes the difficulty in problem solving lies not with the problem but with ourselves o Functional fixedness - to failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems. You are on a camping trip and forgot a can opener, and you need to find something else to open your cans. o Mental Set - we get into a mental rut in out approach to problem solving, continuing to use the same old method even though another might possibly be better. Luchin’s Water Jug Problem : the goal is to obtain the desired amount of water by using the specific jugs All had a similar strategy, but in the last one there was a simpler way to do it, but didn’t see it: got set on what they thought the appropriate solution was o Confirmation Bias- the tendency to look only for evidence that will verify our beliefs → problem with experimentation Replication of Wasson (1960) What rule was used to generate the following sequence? o
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Cognition - Cognition: Lecture 3/5/2012 Cognition- refers...

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