Learning - Psychology 202: Learning Lecture 2/22/2012...

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Psychology 202: Learning Lecture 2/22/2012 Learning - a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience; changing in behavior through maturing How do we learn? Is all learning the same? Classical Conditioning- occurs when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response. Stimulus produces a response Ivan Pavlov- “Stimulus-Response Psychology” o Dogs started to salivate before they even got the food Components of Classical Conditioning: o Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism → saliva o Unconditioned Response (UCR) – reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus → meat o Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism → bell o Conditioned Response (CR) – a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus The Steps Involved in Classical Conditioning: o Sundae (UCS) → Drooling (UCR) o Bell (CS) + Sundae (UCS) → Drooling (UCR) o Bell (CS) → Drooling (CR) Get to a point where the bell by itself is enough to salivate * QUESTION * Dr. H is conducting an experiment, and whenever a picture of Bucky comes up he sounds an air horn. This is an example of an: unconditioned stimulus . The pictures are the conditioned stimulus . How does Classical Conditioning Work? Stimulus substitution → Ivan Pavlov → substituting unconditioned stimulus with conditioned stimulus not the best explanation o Faulty because if every time you hear a bell you get shocked, whenever you hear the bell you will freeze, anticipating the shock. You wouldn’t jump as if you were shocked Information Theory → sends a signal; we learn there is an association between the two stimuli Biological mechanisms → cells in the cerebellum get activated when we are making an association between conditioned stimulus and conditioned response. *QUESTION* Which of the following CS/UCS pairings will work best?
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A. Backward conditioning – UCS precedes the CS B. Simultaneous Conditioning – CS and UCS presented at the same time C. Delayed Conditioning – CS presented at least until the UCS is presented D. Trace Conditioning – CS is discontinued before the UCS is presented *A and B gives no new information; C memory trace makes connection* * QUESTION * Dr. Reuben has been pairing pictures of Apple computers with ice cream for subject Simon. Now when he presents a picture of an Apple computer, Simon starts drooling. What is the drooling called in classical conditioning? Conditioned Response Principles of Classical Conditioning Acquisition - the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together. Higher Order Conditioning
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Learning - Psychology 202: Learning Lecture 2/22/2012...

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