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Unformatted text preview: Memory Textbook Outline Memory- the ability to store and retrieve information overtime o Complex and fragile o Memories are made by combining what we already know with new information coming in o Memories are constructed, not recorded. Encoding- the process by which we transform what we think, perceive, or feel into an enduring memory o Elaborative encoding- the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory. Associated with increased activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe and the inner part of the left temporal lobe o Visual imagery encoding- a form of categorization that involves storing new information by converting it into mental pictures. Substantially improves memory Relating information to knowledge already in memory Two different placeholders: visual and verbal Activates visual processing regions in occipital lobe o Organizational encoding- a form of categorizing that involves noticing the relationships among a series of items. Activates the upper surface of the left frontal lobe Using categories or hierarchy enhances recall Storage- the process of maintaining information in memory overtime Retrieval- the process of bringing into mind information that has been previously encoded and stored. Memory storage- the process of maintaining information in memory overtime. o Sensory memory store- the place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less. o Iconic memory- a fast-decaying store of visual information Decay in about a second or less o Echoic memory- fast-decaying store of auditory information Decay in about 5 seconds Short-term memory storage- a place where non-sensory information is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute. o Information can be held for about 15-20 seconds o Can hold about seven meaningful items at once o Rehearsal- re-entering- the process of keeping information in short term memory by mentally repeating it. o Chunking- involves combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks. o Working memory- active maintenance of information in short-term memory Includes subsystems that store and manipulate visual images or verbal information ; like all the thinking you perform when playing chess: what each piece does, what move to make, and awareness of the flow of information Long-term memory store- a place in which information can be held or hours, days, weeks, or years. o No known capacity limits o Hippocampal region of the brain is critical for putting new information into the long-term store When the hippocampal region is damaged, patients suffer from anterograde amnesia- which is the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store Retrograde amnesia- the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation....
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- Spring '06