Chapter 4 Outline

Chapter 4 Outline - Nicole Katzman Chapter 4 Outline...

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Nicole Katzman Chapter 4 Outline September 28, 2011 Chapter Four Outline: Domestic Politics and War Whose Interests Count in Matters of War and Peace? Realism - in world politics state’s interests is largely, if not entirely, dictated by external factors. o States want to preserve their sovereignty and territorial integrity. o Military power keeps power, so material resources and geographical position, and they are insensitive to domestic factors. Ethnic identities and religious beliefs play a large roll in conflicts National vs. Particularistic Interests A general interest or national interest is something that most, if not all, actors within the country share. They can be attributed to the state as a whole. o Physical security, economic well-being, religious/ethnic Narrow or particularistic national interest interests are those held only by a relatively small number or actors within the country, such as a particular business, an ethnic minority group, or individuals within the government. o Oil-rich countries in the Middle-East 1943 President Roosevelt defended Saudi Arabia with Aramco 1979, SU invaded Afghanistan and President Carter responded with Carter Doctrine 1991 Persian Gulf War and Iraq War Oil is vital to U.S power because of military tanks and airplanes, which ensure military power and security (national interest) US economy runs on oil (general interest) American citizens have a general interest in ensuring stability in the Middle East in order to prevent oil price shocks that would hurt the economy. Firms use their influence over policy makers to ensure that the US defends friendly regimes (like Saudi Arabia) and undermines hostile regimes (like Iraq under Saddam Hussein) o Benefitting a narrow set of interests An actor is a group of individuals with similar interests When you look into states, there are numerous individuals and groups with a variety of interests Domestic institutions determine how decisions are made, and therefore, which actors’ interests are taken into account. In some countries decisions are made by a very small number of individuals, perhaps even one person. o They can act on their personal interests or whims
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o Most commonly, a ruler needs to worry about keeping loyalty of the military because they enforce the laws Institutionalized rules force decision makers to be sensitive to the interests of other rulers Democratic political institutions require leaders to win free and fair elections, forcing them to think about the voting public. Collective action problem- when a group of individuals with common interests seeks to act collectively to further that interest o A relatively narrow interest group can successfully demand a policy that benefits it at the expense of everyone else Three kinds of actors in the country: 1. Foreign policy decisions- state leaders decide when to make threats, what demands to issue, and whether to wage war. 2.
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Chapter 4 Outline - Nicole Katzman Chapter 4 Outline...

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