Chapter Three Outline - Nicole Katzman Chapter Three...

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Nicole Katzman Chapter Three Outline I. Why are there Wars? A. What is the Purpose of War? War: an event involving the organized use of military force by at least two parties that satisfies some minimum threshold of severity Interstate war: a war in which the main participants are states Civil war: a war in which the main participants are within the same state, such as the government and rebel group. What Do States Fight Over? At the root of all wars lies a conflict over things that state value. The purpose of war is not to fight but to obtain Territory- first cause of war over any other given issue o It can contribute to the wealth of the state o It can have oil, natural gas, or minerals o It can ass to the industrial or agricultural resources at the state’s disposal o It can have military or strategic value o It can have ethnic, cultural, or historical reason Policies- conflicts that come about when one state enacts a policy that benefits it but harms the interests of another o War may be a mechanism for completing policy change o War may be used to replace the offending regime when a friendlier one that will pursue different policies Regime type- the composition of another country’s government Conflicts over territory, policy, and regime type may spring from deeper conflicts that give rise to concerns about relative power. Bargaining and War Conflicting interests over the distribution of a good are clearly necessary for wars to happen, but they are not sufficient to explain why wars actually do happen. In a well functioning political system (domestic) disputes can be settled by institutions In international relations, actors may bargain over the distribution of a disputed territory to determine whether there is a division that is acceptable to both sides “All or nothing” bargain positions Crisis bargaining: a bargaining interaction in which at least one actor threatens to use force in the event that its demands are not met Coercive diplomacy: the use of threats to influence the outcome of a bargaining interaction. A state would accept something from the other side if it costs less than that of war
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To prevent a war, it must satisfy all sides in a way that they both prefer the deal to fighting a war Because a war is costly, a settlement that all siders prefer to war generally exists. Bargaining range- the set of deals that both parties in a bargaining interaction prefer to the reversion outcome. o When the reversion outcome is war, the bargaining range is the set of deals that both sides prefer to war Compellence- an effort it change the status quo through the threat of force Deterrence- an effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force o “Don’t attack me, or I’ll fight back”; the effort to deter an attack on one’s own country is known as general deterrence, and it is an activity states are constantly engaged in o “Don’t attack my ally, or else;
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This note was uploaded on 03/15/2012 for the course PSYCH 202 taught by Professor Roberts during the Spring '06 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Chapter Three Outline - Nicole Katzman Chapter Three...

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