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Soc Review Midterm 2

Soc Review Midterm 2 - Midterm#2 1 Does teenage...

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Midterm #2 1. Does teenage childbearing cause disadvantage? Explain. No. Due to selection rather than causation. Less employment, less earnings, but is increasing. This is probably due to family backgrounds…Probably would have had worse outcomes anyway! Teenage births ~75,000 become pregnant ~45,000 actually have the baby Rate is declining about 8% Non-marital teenage birth ratio 2. Explain the difference between institutional, companionate, and individualization in marriage. Institutional (19 th C)-clear rules and roles. Enforced by church, law and external community. Coverture male authority, wife domestic, dutiful and submissive. Companionate (until 1960’s)-sharp division of gender roles. New emphasis on friendship, sexual gratification, affection. Mutual respect. Sex = enjoyable Individualization – cultural and economic sources. Self-development, openness, and communication, flexible roles, enabled by rising standard of living. Socialization is coed. Personal fulfillment is extremely important. 3. Marriage is now described as a capstone experience. What does this mean? Means that marriage is now a marker of prestige, when it used to be a marker of conformity. Marriage “crowns” adulthood. 4. Explain the following interpretations of cohabitation: pure relationship; precursor to marriage; alternative to marriage. Pure Relationship : relationship for its own sake Precursor to Marriage : testing the ground for marriage Alternative to Marriage : unusual among heterosexuals in the United States. Only option available for gays and lesbians in most states. 5. What is the marriage market theory? Supply, preferences, resources. Everyone looks for and wants different things. 6. Describe the specialization and independence models of marriage. Specialization -1950’s; breadwinner homemaker; woman and man specialize in two different skills because this is most efficient Independence -much less specialization; if two people move in together and pool resources, they save money and benefit from each other; dual income; educated marries educated. 7. Are there benefits of marriage that cohabitants do not also have? If so, what are they? Socially enforced public commitment enforceable trust Expectation of permanence resource pooling Legal privileges, derived benefits tax breaks, pension, social security, Medicare Men reduces risky behavior 8. Explain the difference between jump and push factors for female labor force participation and name several of each. Jump voluntary, fewer children, increased education, liberalized attitude, and expansion of service sector Push forced, high divorce rate, decline/stagnation of wages for lower education/middle class men
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9. What is the second shift? Does it still exist? Women that work, work a second shift at home.
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Soc Review Midterm 2 - Midterm#2 1 Does teenage...

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