Does teenage childbearing cause disadvantage? Explain.
Due to selection rather than causation.
Less employment, less earnings, but is
This is probably due to family backgrounds…Probably would have had
worse outcomes anyway!
~75,000 become pregnant
~45,000 actually have the baby
Rate is declining
Non-marital teenage birth ratio
Explain the difference between institutional, companionate, and individualization in
C)-clear rules and roles.
Enforced by church, law and external
male authority, wife domestic, dutiful and submissive.
(until 1960’s)-sharp division of gender roles.
New emphasis on
friendship, sexual gratification, affection.
Sex = enjoyable
– cultural and economic sources.
Self-development, openness, and
communication, flexible roles, enabled by rising standard of living.
Personal fulfillment is extremely important.
Marriage is now described as a capstone experience.
What does this mean?
Means that marriage is now a marker of prestige, when it used to be a marker of
Marriage “crowns” adulthood.
Explain the following interpretations of cohabitation: pure relationship; precursor to
marriage; alternative to marriage.
: relationship for its own sake
Precursor to Marriage
: testing the ground for marriage
Alternative to Marriage
: unusual among heterosexuals in the United States.
option available for gays and lesbians in most states.
What is the marriage market theory?
Supply, preferences, resources.
Everyone looks for and wants different things.
Describe the specialization and independence models of marriage.
-1950’s; breadwinner homemaker; woman and man specialize in two
different skills because this is most efficient
-much less specialization; if two people move in together and pool
resources, they save money and benefit from each other; dual income; educated marries
Are there benefits of marriage that cohabitants do not also have? If so, what are they?
Socially enforced public commitment
Expectation of permanence
Legal privileges, derived benefits
tax breaks, pension, social security, Medicare
reduces risky behavior
Explain the difference between jump and push factors for female labor force
participation and name several of each.
voluntary, fewer children, increased education, liberalized attitude, and
expansion of service sector
forced, high divorce rate, decline/stagnation of wages for lower
education/middle class men