Chapter 5- Protein

Chapter 5- Protein - Chapter 5- Protein An Ecological...

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Chapter 5- Protein An Ecological Perspective Protein contains nitrogen unlike the other macronutrients (carbs and fat) o Nitrogen : one of the most abundant elements in the earth’s atmosphere and biosphere, essential to the structure of an amino acid o Plants ability to make protein depends on the amount of nitrogen available to it Farmers add nitrogen fertilizer Legumes are a member of a plant family capable of fixing nitrogen from the air and thus not dependent on soil fertility to produce a high protein seed o Fix nitrogen : to remove nitrogen from the atmosphere and render it into a chemical form usable by plants Animals are dependent on plant proteins since they cannot synthesize amino acids from nitrogen o Plan and animal proteins eventually give up their nitrogen to soil When in the soil, bacteria decompose the protein and change the chemical form of its protein, making it again available to growing plants Nitrogen composes about 78% of the air we breath Structure Amino Acids o 20 amino acids combined in large numbers in a multitude of ways, give us the tens of thousands of proteins in our bodies o Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and in some cases sulfur Presence of nitrogen distinguishes protein Amine : the chemical group where nitrogen is present in the amino acid Carboxyl : another chemical group Essential amino acid : one which cannot be synthesized by the body and must therefore be consumed in the diet o When protein is used for energy, the defining nitrogen is left over and must be decomposed of Urea : this waste product. Its found in urine Peptides o Short chain of amino acids o Amino acids join together by peptide bound A chemical bond joining 2 amino acids o Insulin is a peptide composed of 51 amino acids o Peptides are digested like dietary protein when eaten, so insulin must be injected Proteins o Sequence
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Very long chains of amino acids Sequence determines the protein Chemical and physical properties of the protein depend on the sequence DNA carries the sequence o Sequence is carried in your genes o Complex Structure Chemical interactions, such as weaker and stronger attractions and repulsions, between amino acids in the chain cause the amino acid
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2012 for the course NUTRI 132 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '11 term at Wisconsin.

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Chapter 5- Protein - Chapter 5- Protein An Ecological...

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