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Chapter 6A- Alcohol - Chapter 6 Alcohol Introduction 21:10...

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Chapter 6: Alcohol  21:10 Introduction Except caffeine, most people consume alcohol more than any other drug in the world Alcohol is unique Not only a drug but a food also An Ecological Perspective Alcohol may be a food but  it is not a nutrient Nutrient is a specific chemical with a specific role that must be present in the diet or  deficient symptoms result No deficiency symptoms occur if you fail to drink alcohol Alcohol can provide energy  But can be replaced easily and advantageously by carbohydrate, fat or protein   Produced by micro-organisms through the fermentation of sugars (usually fruits or  grains) Unless intentionally produced and concentrated, alcohol is only consumed in trace  amounts and then mostly if you eat rotten fruit Body has no dedicated system for metabolizing alcohol since its only consumed in trace  amounts We did not evolve in the presence of alcohol We have no evolutionary adaptation to it Definition, digestion and absorption Drinking alcohol is  ethanol Common drinking alcohol
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Simple, 2-carbon molecule  As a small, simple and highly water-soluble molecule, ethanol requires no digestion Readily absorbed by the digestive tract, beginning in the mouth Don’t even have to swallow to absorb ethanol  Most absorption though occurs in the stomach with great speed and efficiency and then  goes straight into the bloodstream Food in the digestive tract slows absorption Recommended not to eat alcohol on an empty stomach One drink= 13.7 grams or .6 ounces of pure alcohol Alcoholic beverages also contain other substances called,  congeners Non-alcohol substances present in alcoholic drinks  Determine the unique flavors, aromas and colors of different forms of alcohol No government agency regulates alcohol for safety Lead, cobalt, and various toxins have shown up in alcoholic drinks Food and Drug administration is barred from regulating alcohol Administration of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Really only regulate taxation based on alcohol content Resveratrol, found in red wine Helps reduce the risk of heart attacks through reducing the formation of blood clots  Alcohol metabolism Alcohol is toxic
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Needs to be neutralized by the body When breaking down ethanol- we create byproducts that can be used to produce energy Fate of ethanol First step in ethanol metabolism is to convert it to a substance called  acetaldehyde First product of alcohol breakdown Responsible for flushing effect that some experience and unpleasant  sensations  Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)  Enzyme that converts alcohol to acetaldehyde Comes in slow and fast versions
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