Lecture 13 & 14 copy

Lecture 13 & 14 copy - Current and future Sociology...

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Unformatted text preview: Current and future Sociology Majors Check out the SOCIOLOGY CAREER PANEL This Thursday! 4pm 8417 Social Sciences - Unsure what to do with your degree? - Marketing your skills to employers - Applying to grad school and volunteer organizations Come meet a group of successful alumni and career counselors. Ask questions. Get tips. Plus, free food and drink! Soc 120: Marriage and the Family Lectures 13 & 14: Marriage and Cohabitation Prof. Elwert 1 First Midterm Pointers Structure of the exam ~1/2 multiple choice questions ~1/4 fill-in-the-blank questions ~1/4 short essays (2) explaining some fact, trend, or mechanism To prepare, focus on the material presented in lecture (up to and including Lecture 12 only), then look closely at the required readings singled out in lecture Know all major demographic trends discussed in lecture (e.g. age at marriage, marriage probability, divorce rate, total fertility, intermarriage, etc.) Focus on the shape of the trend over time, know the most important turning points, know current levels and levels at important junctures pointed out in lecture. Focus on African Americans, whites, Na First Midterm Pointers Know family history The role of Christianity in the formation of the modern family. Understand what's special about the American family of the 1950s and know how it compares to family life before and after (know numbers!) History of sexual orientation Know all major concepts (some of which aren't in the textbook), including (but not limited to): strategies of heirship, coverture, separation of spheres, doing gender, sexual identity, socialization, biosocial perspective on gender and sexual orientation, antimiscegenation, homogamy Understand complicated arguments, e.g., how do we know that: Sexual orientation has a strong genetic component? Teenage birth may have no causal effect on later earnings of teen mothers? 2 Review Sex and marriage in history Courting, Dating, Hooking Up Nonmartial birth does not Teen births, nonmarital births mean teenage birth Does teenage motherhood cause economic disadvantage? teen mom- less employment, less earnings.. but this is probably due to family background Preview Marriage Types in history Institutional Companionate Individual Attitudes in recent decades Cohabitation Rise of cohabitation Some important consequences Benefits of Cohabitation and marriage Benefits of coresidence Benefits of marriage Selection vs causation 3 Marriage, Meaning, History Institutional marriage (19th C) move from institutional to companionship husbands are the patriarchs of the family because institutional marriage happens on the context of coverture Clear rules and roles Enforced by church, law, community (external) Male authority; wife domestic, dutiful, and submissive Companionate marriage (until ~1960s) Retain sharp gender division of labor, homemakerbreadwinner ideal But new emphasis on affection, friendship, sexual gratification--spouses as partners & companions Also still: external criteria of own role behavior to evaluate satisfaction couples now have sex for enjoyment 1950s- good marriage meant having a good job, supporting your family, having your wife be a good homemaker today- marriage is about sex and love couples now seek out friendship husbands now expected to listen to their wives, like their wives (and women expected to do things out of desire and appreciation than obligation) Marriage, Meaning, History is this marriage good for me? does it make me happy? today ideal is that husbands and wives spend most of their time together and when they socialize with people, they do so together Individualization Cultural and economic sources Overriding importance of personal fulfillment Self-development Openness and communication Flexible roles (decline of homemaker-breadwinner, rise of dual earner model) Enabled by rising standards of living - possibility of leaving dissatisfying relationships 1960s- middle class married women and middle class married women with young children work into 1990s- women had to work the second shift today changing-->gender roles Hlexible Marriage as capstone experience From marker of conformity to marker of prestige Marriage no longer begins, but rather crowns adulthood you got married because that's what one did. today it's not about conformity but rather prestige. crowning achievement is marriage that holds it all together. marriage used to initiate transition into adulthood, today marriage completes that transition. adulthood- completed education, have a good job, then get married 4 Declining Organizing Role Marriage no longer exclusively organizes Sex Coresidence used to be that they would only live together if they were married Childbearing Childrearing only way to raise a child was to be married Gender division of labor Increasingly possible outside of marriage Marriage no longer sole frame of reference marriage used to organize everything that was important in life, today it doesnt Attitudes Toward Marriage Changes in behavior coincide with changes in attitudes toward marriage, and the meaning of marriage to Americans Change 1950s-1970s: Positive attitudes toward marriage declining, increasing approval of singlehood, disapproval of marital restrictions institutionalized-->companioned Stability 1980s-1990s: General disposition towards marrying and marriage favorable & stable (no change in attitude toward marriage, singlehood, divorce) Change 1970s-1990s Increasing acceptance of premarital sex, acceptability of childlessness, cohabitation, non-marital childbearing; less rigid gender role expectations Possible feedback loops between attitudes and behavior (Axinn & Thornton 2000) 5 Cohabitation if men and women lived together, common law marriage would consider them married Cohabitation, History Pre 1960s: nonmarital coresidence limited to low SES Rural common law marriage (dying legal doctrine) Rapid increase since ~1970 ~20-fold increase in cohabitation 1960-2010 Also among high education, increased visibility But still more common among low SES Today: majority of young Americans will cohabit Cohabitation increasingly normative 2/3 of Americans born ~1970 cohabited before marriage Early adulthood the age of independence Keeps rising 6 Percent of First Marriages in the U.S. Preceded by Cohabitation, by Marriage Cohort 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1965- 1975- 1980- 1985- 1990- 199774 79 84 89 94 01 Source: Bumpass & Lu (2000: Table 3); Bumpass & Sweet (1989: Table 2); Kennedy & Bumpass (2008, Table 4); compiled by Pam Smock et al., ISR, University of Michigan. How Do Couples Decide to Cohabit? Cohabitation often does not result from a conscious decision For most couples, cohabiting is a gradual process rather than an abrupt change in their relationship Cannot remember start date as married couples remember wedding date No formal ceremony, so no official marker Most research in this area has been quantitative, but recent qualitative research provides nuance Slide or drift into cohabitation (Manning & Smock) 14 7 15 16 8 Measuring Cohabitation How/when it is measured matters: Direct question versus inferred measures yield different estimates Current versus retrospective reports yield different estimates (Teitler, Reichman & Koball) McLanahan) Question wording, e.g. yes/no versus more categories (Knab & Within-couple differences One study of couples with children found that 11% of mothers and fathers disagree about cohab status (Teitler & Reichman) Terminology Many cohabitors don't identify with the term unmarried partner Types of Cohabitation Cohabitors are a diverse group Many purposes Three dominant interpretations Pure relationship Relationship for its own sake Precursor to marriage Testing ground for marriage Alternative to marriage Pretty unusual among heterosexuals in the U.S. Only available option for gays and lesbians in most States Few cohabiting unions last >5 years 9 Cohabitation, Implications Cohabitation compensates for much of rising age at marriage Pop. married by 25 fell 24% between 1970 and 1985 Pop. in coresidential union by 25 fell only 8% Rising cohabitation compensates for 2/3 of rising age at marriage Much single motherhood actually non-married but cohabiting motherhood ~30% of all births outside marriage ~12% of all births to unmarried but cohabiting women ~40%of single births due to cohabiting women Cohabitation usually short-lived ~ half dissolve w/in 1 year ~ half end in marriage w/in 1 year Specialization & Independence Models of Partnership Marriage market theory Supply, preferences, resources Specialization model Trading comparative advantages Efficient (Becker) - but risky (Oppenheimer) Older model (50s) Independence model Income pooling and bargaining Increasingly dominant model (today) 10 Benefits of Coresidence Many benefits of coresidence accrue to both marrieds and cohabitors Companionship Sex Economies of scale Risk reduction, insurance function Health Why Marry? Public Commitment Social Recognition Social and instrumental support, and connection to larger community Means of individual fulfillment Co-Parenting easier (and better?) than single-parenting ( package deal ) 11 Benefits of Marriage Marriage per se may confer additional benefits Marriage as an institution Marriage is a socially enforced public committment! Enforceable trust Expectation of permanence! Facilitates specialization, and thus increases gains Resource pooling Legal privileges, derived benefits E.g. tax breaks, alimony, pensions, social security, Medicare Benefits of Marriage (cont d) Marriage provides stronger insurance function than cohabitation B/c greater stability & enforceable trust Marital role behaviors Men reduce risky behaviors 12 Are the Benefits of Marriage Causal? Married men and women, on average, are better off than unmarried people with respect to: E.g. health, mortality, happiness, income & wealth, violence Partially due to the selection of advantaged individuals into marriage, and of bad risks out of marriage Lower rates of spousal violence in marriage compared to cohabitation may be entirely due to selection Married-men s wage premium - Jerk effect Partially due to causation Marriage really does seem to improve people s lives Recommended reading: Waite ( course website) 13 ...
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