Unformatted text preview: Soc 120: Marriage and the Family
Lecture 15: Work and Families I Prof. Elwert First Midterm
Preliminary!Grade!Distribu-on! Preliminary!Grade! Point!Range! Exams!In!Range! A! 74<83! 16%! AB! 69<73! 20%! B! 62<68! 23%! BC! 58<62! 17%! C! 52<57! 13%! D! 47<51! 5%! F! 0<46! 6%! 1 First Midterm Many strong performances! First time ever: a perfect score Room for improvement Common Problems Answer every question If you don't know the answer for an MC question: guess! By and large, students did better on questions from lecture and worse on questions from the readings Please spend more time with your required readings Significant gaps in knowledge of African American families; comparing AfAm to white families Essays Aim for 1-1 match between question and answer. If you can't match every sentence of your answer to a specific part of the question, or if there are parts of the questions that your essay does not directly address, then that's not a good sign expectation of permanence, forced trust (marriage is socially enforced more than cohabitation. community plays much more weight on marriage and more likely to help a couple maintain marriage than maintain cohabitation ("hope to save their marriage" not "hope to save their cohabitation") -Marriage seems to make people healthy. Review Why do people marry? Marriage market theory Specialization model Independence model
independence model: each independently working. if two people move in together, they're save money if they pool resources, they beneOit from each other Benefits of coresidence the other person who you live with IS the insurance. if one has a disease Benefits of marriage
it's not that marriage makes people less violent, violent people don't get married to begin with Causation vs selection and can't work, the other spouse insurance will continue work and act as the 2 Preview Work and Families I Rise in female labor force participation Pattern & reasons Mothers time with children (It's complex. Please study carefully.) Female Labor Force Participation (LFP) The movement of married(!) women into the labor force is one of the most important changes in the American family in the 20th Century Led to a profound change in the gender balance of power Labor force: employed (full or part time) + unemployed (not working but looking for work) transition from companionship mariage to individualized marriage. those who are employed, those who are unemployed, those who are non-employed (if want to work, can work ex-homemakers) employment: working for at least one house a week have to be unemployed, want work, and have to be actively seeking work. unemployed people are not slackers. 3 Mothers LFP (by age of children)
since 2000, the majority of American families have experienced decline in their economic well- being women were more likely to leave the labor force (give up on seeking work) majority of mothers work today (younger the kids, the less likely to work) Female LFP (by age of woman) starting in the 50s, female LEP drastically decreases 1976 and 2004 Female LEP increased at all ages First women would graduate from college, work, and then drop out of work until a later age where they would start working again Mothers with young children withdrew from work completely in the 70s Cherlin, Textbook, (older edition [5th, p. 262]) 4 Explanations Why has female labor force participation increased so much? Did they jump? Expansion of the service sector Fewer children (lower TFR) Increased education Liberalized attitudes
growth of secretaries, nurses economy grew and created job categories that enabled women to work Were they pushed? Decline/stagnation of wages for lower educ/middle class men increase in divorce rate has something to do with High divorce rate Recent decline increase in female labor force participation GI Bill- Increasing Education (sex) Payed men who served in the military to go to college for free After 1950- huge transformation in American higher education After 1995- women are more likely to graduate from college than men --> 1970- less than 10 percent of law and medical degrees went to women Source: Park 2011 now trend is increasing 5 Attitudes toward Female LFP
1970s- 60% of men thought that working women could not be as good of mothers Today- these numbers have shrunk Both men and women have considerably more liberal attitudes than in the past and they by in large agree Sayer and Bianchi (2000), p.295 What About the Kids? Despite drastic shifts in LFP, there is little evidence that fem LFP hurts kids (except infants) A common perception, especially among men It's really quite complicated: 1. Money: dual earner families have greater financial resources But among low educ couples fem LFP may be mostly compensatory rather than a real gain. 2. Time: employed mothers spend (somewhat, not much) less time with their children But the increase in female labor force participation over time has not systematically reduced mothers' time with children! Let's look at this more closely. [Read Cherlin, Bianchi!] Less time w/ kids-->more money 6 Employed Mothers spend (somewhat) less time with their kids
employed mothers do spend somewhat less time with their kids than unemployed mothers Source: Bianchi 2000 Over past decades, increase in fem LFP hasn't systematically reduced parent's time with children
number of absolute hours that parents spend on childchare Cherlin, Textbook (from the 5th edition) 7 Mothers Source: Bianchi 2000 Fathers Source: Bianchi 2000 8 Mothers' Time With Kids Bianchi: female LFP hasn't systematically reduced mother's time with children. Recently, there's even been an increase in mom's time with kids What's going on?
1. People overestimate time non-employed women spend w/ kids 2. ~half of employed married women w/ young kids only work part time 3. Mechanization & outsourcing housework Less housework in general over time Employed women do even less housework 4. Men do more housework (but still gender gap), freeing up mothers' time to spend with kids 5. Rise of preschool enrollment 6. Fewer children
1. More time per child 2. Fewer years w/ young children enables rising LFP 7. Less leisure time for working mothers (preserving time with kids) Source: Bianchi 2000 9 Source: Bianchi 2000 10 ...
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- Fall '08
- Unemployment, LFP