Unformatted text preview: Soc 120: Marriage and the Family
Lecture 18: The Elderly & Grandparenting Prof. Elwert Review Parents & children learns basis of the culture- how to interact secondary socialization- learn to become part of a subgroup (profession, class) Socialization Parenting styles: Baumrind she found educational differences between blacks and Fathers whites are because of Education and class: Lareau differences in class, not difference in race 3 educational styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive Laureau: no one before her has investigated how things that parents give to their kids lead to the perpetuation of parental class differences in the child class generation. intergenerational transition of social class 1 Preview Elderly & grandparenting Rise of grandparents Living arrangements Care arrangements Grandparenting Widowhood effect Rise of Grandparenting Grandparenting emerged as mass phenomenon only since ~WWII In 1900, <25% of newborns had four living grandparents, 20% of 30 yo had any living grandparents In 2000, >66%, >75% For the first time, most grandchildren and grandparents know each other
most grandchildren get to have the chance to know their grandparents grandparenting is a new phenomenon 2 Rise of Grandparenting Reasons Mortality decline Increased life expectancy (+ good years ) Gender and race differences
Americans have fewer kids-->each individual child has fewer siblings-->kinship ties less within generations -youngest child leaves home earlier and so the parents live relatively longer without children than they used to -no longer have kids of their own in the home so they can focus on spending time with grandchildren People live long enough to meet grandkids Fertility decline Fewer births (and hence fewer siblings); emphasizes vertical kinship Youngest child leaves home earlier, More time to spend with grandchildren 3 Fertility Decline
(Total Fertility Rate=TFR) Source: Population Reference Bureau based on NCHS data. Living Arrangements Increase in single living among elderly (60+) since mid-century
1940: <10% live alone 2008: m20%, w40% live alone elderly: social problems associated with old age dependence: elderly become frail and depend on other to take care of them, programs to help them are expensive today- women outlive their husbands by more and more years Reasons Cultural: Strong preference for independence Economic: Because they can (increasing standard of living) Demographic: Gender difference in life expectancy 4 Standard of Living Standard of living for the elderly has increased Social security benefits Medicare for almost all elderly But doesn't pay for nursing home care Medicaid for poor (of any age) Some elderly continue to work Poverty among elderly Less than most people think m7%, w12% only about 10% of elderly are "poor" by conventional [email protected] 5 Work at Older Ages: Men vs. Women Employment Changes By Age During Recession :Who is Working More? 6 Social Security A Federal social insurance program designed to insure against the risk of economic insecurity associated with a breadwinner's old age, death, or disability Nearly universal (workers & spouses) By far the largest income transfer program in the U.S. Percentage receiving income from specified source, 2006 7 Social Security and Poverty S.S. significantly reduces elderly poverty Alternative poverty calculations (2002) show anti-poverty effectiveness of the program: Percent poor before transfers = 49.9% Percent poor after social security=11.5% Percent poor after means-tested cash transfers (Official poverty rate)=10.4% After all taxes & near-cash transfers = 9.0% Engelhardt and Gruber. (2006) Social Security and the Evolution of Elderly Poverty. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 10466 8 Elder Care Majority of disabled elderly cared for at own home by relatives (not nursing home) Wives care for old men Daughters for elderly parents, mothers Potentially decreasing due to Increasing female LFP Declining fertility - fewer daughters Precarious position of divorced fathers But note greater lifetime earnings of men 9 Mutual Assistance More assistance down than up! Down (older to younger generation) Mostly direct assistance Financial assistance to children & grandchildren Childcare Up (younger to older generation) Mostly indirect assistance: Social security taxes Direct assistance: Care for frail/disabled parent Grandparenting Increase in affectionate bonds High frequency of contact Increase in direct parenting through grandparents Multigenerational households
~4% of children Often divorced mothers w/children SameHS grad rate as 2-parent households Skipped generation households
~2% of children More prevalent for African American children (9%) Stress on grandparents happens if parents are dead, or if they are hospitalized 10 21 Percentage of all children under 18 who are living in Grandparents home Widowhood Effect Loss of spouse increases mortality by about 15-20% in old age for whites Central evidence for health benefits of marriage Found for bereaved men and women Loss of primary care giver (men) Loss of income (women) Long lasting (no apparent substitute) No apparent widowhood effect for blacks Likely because elderly AfAm are much more likely than whites to live with other kin (rater than alone) Greater independence of AfAm husbands and wives Blacks appear to benefit from marriage longer than whites 11 Whites: Widowhood Effect Mortality drops at marriage, spikes at death of spouse, stays elevated No Widowhood Effect: No benefit from marriage, and no harm from widowhood Blacks: No Widowhood Effect: Benefit from marriage, but no harm (no mortality increase) from widowhood. (Stylized graph from Elwert and Christakis 2006) 12 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 03/14/2012 for the course SOC 120 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Wisconsin.
- Fall '08