Lecture 26 copy - Soc0%Marriage%and%theúmily...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/7/11% Soc%120:%Marriage%and%the%Family% Lecture%26:%Social%Policy,%Family% Change%At%Home%and%Abroad% Prof.%Elwert% Preview% Family%&%Social%Policy%% Welfare%and%"Workfare"%through%the%ages%% Family%Change%in%the%United%States% Family%Change%Worldwide%% Second%Demographic%TransiRon% 1% 12/7/11% Welfare%(1935W1996)% Social%Security%Act%(1935)%%new%deal@%government%social%safety%net government%creates%aid%for% families%with%dependent% children%(AFDC)=%Welfare Made%for%women%primarily@% Sirst%given%to%widows most%important%piece%of%legislation%of%the% this%system%continued% into%the%1990s%but%in% the%late%1980s,%there%is% a%cultural%shift%and% americans%come%to% believe%that%it%isn't%ok% for%people%to%draw% government%checks%no% matter%how%hard%they% have%been%hit%by% economic%misfortune% Act%primarily%addressed%at%men%% Enshrines%family%wage%system,%% Forces%women%out%of%federal%employment% Creates%AFDC%(Aid%for%families%with%dependent%children)% %=%"Welfare"% EnRtlement%program% No%Rme%limit%on%benefits% First%widows,%later%all%poor%families%w/%children,%in%the%end% predominantly%divorced/never%married%women%w/%children% First%no%work%requirement%(supporRng%family%wage%system,% breadwinner/homemaker%ideal),%then%gradually%work%requirements%for% recipients% early%1990s,%women%were% disproportionately%poor%and% policy%makers%were% disproportionately%male @huge%increase%in%violent%crime% in%1990s @1996:%federal%government% killed%AFDC%and%replaced%it% with%PRWORA @PRWORA:%personal% responsibility%work% opportunity%reconciliation%act welfare@@>work%fare poor%were%still%going%to%get%a% check%from%the%government,% but%no%without%any% reciprocation%(work%in%return) Aid%for%Poor%Families%Today% Welfare%Reform%1996% PRWORA%creates%TANF%to%replace%AFDC% Block%grant% Must%work%w/in%two%years%of%receipt%(significant%blow% to%breadwinner/homemaker%ideology)% Caused%massive%reducRon%in%welfare%roles,%increase%in% labor%force%parRcipaRon%of%poor%mothers,%generally% small%increase%in%earnings% 5%year%lifeRme%limit%on%assistance% Limits%begin%to%take%hold%%recent%stopWgap%extensions% in%97%when%act%took%hold@% welfare%decreased 2% 12/7/11% Sirst%lenient%laws%and%bad% economy AFDC/TANF%Recipient%Families%1961W2007% [email protected]:%welfare%roles% swelled%enormously% around%2000%and%after@% welfare%roles%have% dropped%dramatically% if%the%goal%was%to%reduce% welfare%roles,%then%it%was% a%success but%did%it%make%the%lives% of%the%poor%better? @@>doesn't%look%like%it.%no% large%change%in%economic% [email protected]%of%poor%(even% though%gov't%has%saved%a% lot%of%money) hbp://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/indicators08/apa.shtml#eanf2% How%Large%is%the%Average%"Welfare"%Check?% has%decreased%steadily% since%late%1970s% hbp://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/indicators08/apa.shtml#eanf2% 3% 12/7/11% EITC@%most%expensive/social% Earned%Income%Tax%Credit%(EITC)% Earned%income%tax%credit%(EITC)% Introduced%in%1975,%modified%later% Income%subsidy%for%low%earners,%especially%those%with% children% Claimant%must%work%to%receive%EITC%("working%poor")% Depends%on%earned%income% No%income%=>%zero%EITC% Benefits%increase%with%earnings%up%to%a%point%(ca%$5k%for%family% of%4%earning%12W16k% Faze%out%at%higher%incomes% program%in%the%united%states @works%as%a%tax%credit:% working%but%not%making%a%lot% of%money,%can%apply%for%this% and%you%can%get%tax%credit% back%(in%some%cases,%can%even% get%more%money%back)% @if%you%don't%work,%don't%get% tax%bill,%you%don't%get%EITC% (has%a%strong%work%incentive% so%popular%with% conservatives) @popular%with%liberals:%it%is% the%greatest%program%that% helps%the%poor Largest%program%for%poor%families,%bigger%than%TANF% Credited%with%lieing%over%30%million%families%out%of%poverty% Aid%for%Poor%Families%Today% NoRce%inconsistent%incenRves% Tax%code%rewards%breadwinner%homemaker%model% SoWcalled%"marriage%penalty"%in%tax%code%increases%tax%bill%for% couples%where%spouses%earn%similar%income,%but%rewards%those%in% which%one%spouse%earns%significantly%more%than%the%other% In%pracRce:%penalizes%lowWearning%dualWearner%couples;% discourages%female%LFP%at%all%levels% Note:%Congress%suspended%"penalty"%2001W2012% PRWORA%&%EITC%encourage%labor%force%parRcipaRon% In%pracRce:%mostly%affects%single%mothers%with%children% One%policy%de%facto%encourages,%the%other%discourages% female/mother's%labor%force%parRcipaRon% 4% 12/7/11% Big%QuesRons% What%family%forms%should%the%government% encourage?% Marriage%ideal%vs%independence% What%gender%roles%should%the%government% encourage% Female%labor%force%parRcipaRon%vs%breadwinner/ homemaker%and%fullWRme%motherhood% marriage/divorce/ Family%Change%in%the%United%States% cohabitation: @living%before%marriage%has% become%the%norm@%majority% of%marriages%are%preceded%by% cohabitation fertility: cultural%shift@%no%longer% necessary%to%be%married%to% have%kids @nonmarrital%birth%rates%are% going%up @birth%rate%is%at%replacement% @age%of%having%a%child%has% increased remarriage: -age of marriage has increased dramatically -marriage is no longer economic safeguard but capstone experience -re-marriage rates have decreased (in recent years have slowed a little bit) but huge re-partnering after divorce -divorce rates have skyrocketed since 1960s The%United%States%has%experienced%massive% family%change%over%the%past%few%decades% Let's%list%the%some%important%trend%in...% Marriage/divorce/remarriage% CohabitaRon% FerRlity/marital%status%at%birth% Gender%roles% 5% 12/7/11% Family%Change%Abroad% But%we%are%not%alone!% Despite%some%important%differences%(see%your% required%Cherlin%readings),%similar%changes%as% in%the%U.S.%have%occurred%(in%this%order)%in:% Northern%&%Western%Europe% Southern%Europe% PostWcommunist%Central%&%Eastern%Europe% MostWdeveloped/developing%Asia% "Second%Demographic%TransiRon"% Sweeping%worldwide%changes%in%family%behaviors% and%ideals% Rising%age%at%marriage% Increased/high%divorce%rates% Increasing%pre/post%marital%cohabitaRon% Decline%of%remarriage% Gender%equality% Individualized%marriage% Decoupling%of%marriage%and%procreaRon% Increasing%extramarital%births% % Discovered%by%Lestaeghe%and%van%de%Kaa%(1986)%Remarkably%complex%and%accurate%predicRon!% Declining%ferRlity% Sustained%subWreplacement%ferRlity% 6% 12/7/11% Example:%% FerRlity%Postponement/Decline% Example:%Extramarital%births% U.S.:%~40%,%and%rising% 7% 12/7/11% Where%does%it%come%from?% [email protected]% world@%no%longer%worries% about%survival%(but%still% concerned%with% materialistic%goods) Cultural%preference%drie%(Maslow%1954)% Wealthier%and%more%educated%populaRons% No%longer%preoccupied%with%survival,%security,%authority% ("materialist")% Emphasize%needs%of%selfWexpression,%emancipaRon,% autonomy,%recogniRon,%grassroots%parRcipaRon%("postW materialist"%[Ingelhart%1970])% Example:%Age%at%First%Birth%and% Postmaterialism% 8% 12/7/11% LongWRun%ImplicaRons% DiversificaRon%of%living%arrangements% Decline%of%marriage%as%exclusive%ideal% CohabitaRon,%livingWapartWtogether,%inRmate%friendships% SubWreplacement%ferRlity% Children%for%parental%selfWexpression% ContracepRon%to%delay%and%avoid,%rather%than%cap,%ferRlity% Later%and%fewer%births% Shrinking%populaRons,%increased%reliance%on%migraRon% U.S.%is%lateWcomer%to%second%demographic% transiRon,%% But%looks%like%it's%catching%up% 9% ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2012 for the course SOC 120 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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