Unformatted text preview: TANF- for law, income, poor, don't need to work right away EITC- law income, only for those who work and called workfare materialism (practices that are focus on bare survival: food, shelter)-->post- materialist values (self- expression: become important in people's lives only after they have Gigured out how to make survival happen) materialist IS NOT materialistic Soc 120: Marriage and the Family
Lecture 27: Exam Review Prof. Elwert Exam Format Structure of the exam Exact same structure as the first midterm ~1/2 multiple choice ~1/4 fill-in-the-blank ~1/4 two short essays Read questions carefully You'll have plenty of time. Don t rush! 1 know%basic%take%home%message%of%the% graphs% differences%in%black/whites,%higher%edu/ lower%edu Female%LFP%graph%is%importantD%3%take% home%messages%to%know% married%men%have%higher% wages%than%unmarried%men.% did%marriage%increase%men's% wages%or%is%is%selectionD%does% it%just%happen%that%those%men% who%would%make%higher% wages%anyway%are%the%ones% who%get%married=%VARIOUS% REASONS Selection: men%who%are%untrustworthy% or%jerks%are%unlikely%to%not% make%much%money%and% unlikely%to%not%get%married%to% begin%with Causation: Maybe%getting%married% changes%something%about% employed%menD Now%have%family%to%support,% get%their%act%together,%make% them%more%responsible%(ex:% marriage%seems%to%reduce% men's%substance%abuse% because%now%under%women's% supervision%who%won't% tolerate%it)% Discrimination%reason:%family% wage%system.%Employers%who% know%that%employes%have% families%they%need%to%provide% for%might%raise%their%salariesD% illegal%but%de%facto,%still% happens causation%(what%makes%stuff%happen)%and%selection (the%kinds%of%women%who%do%end%up%doing%stuff%would%have%anyway) the%cause%and%effect%of%a%behavior%on%an%outcome%is%the%difference%on%outcomes%if%a%person%would%have%done% it%anyway%probably effect%of%teenage%motherhood%and%wages%is%the%difference%in%wages%that%would%be%observed%if%a%teenage% women%had%a%child%as%a%teenager%or%if%she%didnt.%teenage%women%would've%had%lower%wages%anyway
those%who%cohabit%have% higher%divorce%rate%than% those%who%do%notD cohabitation%doesn't%increase% people's%divorce%rate.%BUT%as% a%group,%cohabiters%have%a% higher%divorce%rate%DUE%TO% SELECTIONDDonce%we%take% selection%into%account,% association%disappearsDD cohabitors%lower%risk%of% divorce%by%reducing% marriages.%marriages%that% would%have%resulted%in% divorce%anyway.%Cohabiters% prevent%divorce%by% preventing%marriages examples: The%more%nontraditional% couples%have%a%more% permissive%attitude%towards% divorce DLess%sure:%if%they%knew%this% was%for%life,%then%why%would% they%cohabit%and%not%marry Content Everything from Lecture 13 (and teen mother study in Lecture 12) Review all graphs and tables in lecture notes, know key points/conclusions Know how attitudes toward fem lfp has changed (exact numbers not important) Pay attention to selection vs causation explanations E.g., effects of teenage childbearing, married men's wage premium, cohabitation and divorce, remarriage effects Major concepts include (some not in book) E.g., remarriage, domestic violence, family wage system, family policy, second demographic transition etc. Topics You Asked About Marriage market theory Supply (possible mates) Preferences (what you're looking for) Resources (what you're bringing to the table) Dby%in%larger,%married%couples% who%started%out%as%cohabiters% weren't%sure%about%their% relationship%in%the%beginning Dthose%who%happen%to%be% violent,%sort%themselves%into% cohabit%relationshipsDD>less% likely%to%marry%
independence%model:% income%pooling%and% bargaining.% .economies%of%scale.%scale% production%unit%(family)D%as% you%scale,%marginal%costs%of% maintianing%that%unit% decreases Specialization model Trading comparative advantages Efficient (Becker) - but risky (Oppenheimer) Older model (50s) Both%models:%why%do%people% marry?%what's%the%beneBit%of% being%marry Each%model%gives%different% answers Independence model Income pooling and bargaining Increasingly dominant model (today) Marriage%market%theoryD%take%standard%economic%theory%and%graph%it%onto%marital%behavior.%trying%to%understand%marriage%relationships%as%a% bargaining%processD%Supply%(Available%partners),%Preferences%(people%like%different%peopleD%what%participants%in%market%are%looking%for),%Resources% (what%you're%bringing%to%the%tableD%looks,%education,%earning%potential,%race/ethnicity)% Specialization%model:%what%people%look%for%is%to%trade%comparative%advantages.%one%specialize%in%breadwinning,%other%in%homemaking.%specializing%in% 2 division%of%labor%is%more%productive%and%efBicient%AS%LONG%AS%COUPLE%IS%MARRIED%than%not%doing%this.%(one%has%wage%of%20/hr,%other%15/hrDD>one%
who%gets%less%will%take%care%of%the%home,%rather%than%dividing%up%labor%equally%and%losing%moreDone%who%is%better%at%wage%earning%will%specialize%in% that).%SPECIALIZATION%CREATES%DEPENDENCY.%upon%divorce,%man%has%fungible%skills%but%woman%has%invested%in%stuff%that%is%not%fungible.% Marriage%beneBits%over% cohabiting 1.%Legal%beneBits Dgranted%certain%types%of% assistance.%spouses%can% derive%social%security%and% medicare%beneBits%through% partners%in%old%age% Dexpectation%of% permanence:%promise%to% stay%together%for%entire% lives Dpublic%commitment:% culturally%that%community% tries%to%support%marriage% but%indifferent%towards% cohabiting%couples.%Married% couples%enjoy%enforceable% trust.%Partner%does%not%have% incentive%to%misbehave% because%has%communities% support DMarriage%has%become%a% symbol%of%pride,%marker%of% prestige.% Topics You Asked About Marriage Benefits Marriage confers additional benefits not (usually) available to cohabiting couples Spousal social security & Medicare entitlements Facilitates resource pooling and specialization through expectation of permanence Greater trust through socially enforced public commitment Means of individual fulfillment (capstone experience) don't%have%good%evidence%that% FLFP%destabilizes%marriage.% contradictory%effects: 1.%opportunity%effect:%woman% that%works%in%the%labor%force%is% more%able%to%divorce%husband% because%she%is%more% independent.%destabilizes% marriage 2.%income%effect:%if%a%wife% works%for%pay,%then%her% husband%has%less%incentive%to% let%her%go%(positive%incentive% to%make%her%stay)=%money%in% valuable%to%family%unity.% stabilizes%marriage% on%averageD%the%2%balance%each% other%out.%no%causation% Topics You Asked About Divorce explanations What's the role of Fem LFP? On one hand, women's employment may create a marriage destabilizing "opportunity effect", i.e., due to independent income, working women can afford a divorce. On the other hand women's employment may create a marriage stabilizing "income effect," i.e. woman's income is valuable to husband, so he is more interested in staying in the marriage Overall, Fem LFP does not appear to explain much of the rise of divorce rate. 3 Topics You Asked About
READ%ARTICLE when%look%within%a%classD% race%differences%disappear.% Lareau Main interests How educational styles differ by class How class-specific educational styles help reproduce the social class structure Working class: "natural growth" Kids hang out with peers Parents use directives Emerging sense of constraint Highly structured leisure activities Parents use reasoning, bargaining Emerging sense of entitlement kids%can%grow%just%Bine%on%their% ownDD>develop%sense%of% constraint%
use%explicit,%rational% reasoning% Middle class: "concerted cultivation" Topics You Asked About Cohabitation and Divorce People who cohabit first are more likely to divorce than people who marry right away. This is the case because people who cohabit are less sure about the union, less religious, more open to divorce, etc. In other words, cohabitation per se has nothing to do with the increased risk: it's all selection. Once you take into account selection and compare "apples to apples" (i.e., comparable married couples who did and did not cohabit), cohabitation does not, per se, increase the risk of divorce. There is no causal effect. That being said, cohabitation affords couples a chance to reconsider their union. If they don't like what they see, they can simply break up. To the extent that cohabitors who don't marry would have gotten a divorce if they had married straight away, cohabitation does causally reduce the risk of divorce (by preventing marriages). 4 Topics You Asked About Gay marriage What's the "symbolic argument" in favor of gay marriage? Two meanings:
1. Being married confers a privileged status on a couple in the eyes of the community (i.e., "they're serious, they're not just living together"). Marriage is a potent symbol of achievement. 2. Many gay people consider straight people's support of gay marriage a (symbolic) measure of their commitment to equality. What's this "cohort replacement" thing? On average, more recently born people (cohorts) are more likely to support gay marriage than people born earlier. As old cohorts die, and newer cohorts move up, support of gay marriage is expected to increase. This is called "cohort replacement" (new cohorts replace older cohorts). Topics You Asked About PRWORA, TANF, AFDC??? PRWORA (a law) is the act that created TANF (a program) in 1996 TANF replaced AFDC AFDC no longer exists
AFDC%created%in%1935%and%was%fully%replaced%by%TANF%in%1996.% know%differences% 5 Topics You Asked About Explanations of intimate partner violence Read the textbook. Lecture was taken straight from Cherlin Does teen motherhood cause lower wages? Review last slide of Lecture 12 Geronimus & Korenman study on teen motherhood and wages Do African Americans Benefit Longer from Marriage?
Whites: Widowhood Effect Mortality drops at marriage, spikes at death of spouse, stays elevated No Widowhood Effect: No benefit from marriage, and no harm from widowhood Blacks: No Widowhood Effect: Benefit from marriage, but no harm (no mortality increase) from widowhood. (Elwert and Christakis 2006) 6 Topics You Asked About
" In what senses is marriage more important, and less important, than it was in the past?" " 7 ...
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- Fall '08
- fem lfp