Chapter 5 – Learning

Chapter 5 – Learning - Joel Diaz Chapter 5...

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Joel Diaz Chapter 5 – Learning I. What is Learning? - Relatively enduring change in behavior in knowledge due to experience (Environment). - Conditioning – the process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral response. II. Types of Learning A. Classical Conditioning (Associating stimuli) o Respondent conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning. o Classical conditioning – The basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-process stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits a response. o A reflex is a relatively simple, unlearned behavior, governed by the nervous system, that occurs automatically when the appropriate stimulus is presented. 1. Pavlov and the salivating dogs Began as a result of an observation he made while investigating the role of saliva in digestion, using dogs as his experimental subjects. a. Principles of classical conditioning 1) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – Stimulus that brings about a reflexive-like response (natural, automatic, unlearned) 2) Unconditioned Response (UCR) – Reflexive-like response to UCS.
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3) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – originally, a neutral stimulus, paired with UCS 4) Conditioned Response (CR) - Learned response to CS (without UCS) b. Process of classical conditioning 2. Factors that affect conditioning (half-second) a. Appetitive Conditioning - b. Aversive Conditioning - c. Stimulus Generalization – The occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus but also to other, similar stimuli. d. Stimulus Discrimination – The occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli e. Higher (Second) Order Conditioning – A procedure in which a conditioned stimulus from one learning trial functions as the unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial; the second conditioned stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response, even though it has ever been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. f. Extinction – The gradual weakening and apparent disappearance of conditioned behavior. Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
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g. Spontaneous Recovery – The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus. h. External Inhibition - 3. From Pavlov to Watson (The founding of behaviorism) John B. Watson thought psychology should be redefined as “the scientific study of behavior”. Behaviorism – School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasize the scientific study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning.
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2012 for the course PSY PSY2012 taught by Professor Debbie during the Fall '10 term at Florida State College.

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Chapter 5 – Learning - Joel Diaz Chapter 5...

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