Chapter 6 outline - Joel Diaz Chapter 6 Memory I...

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Joel Diaz Chapter 6 - Memory I. Memory (cognitive) - Active, mental system of acquiring info (from senses), keeping it, and retrieving it. - Three processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. A. Putting it in: encoding 1. The Role of attention o Focus awareness on narrow range of stimuli. o Automatic processing – little or no effect involved o Effortful processing – with conscious deliberate effect. o More effort = better. 2. The Role of Cognitive Schemas - - - B. Keeping it in: storage o The process of retaining info in memory so that it can be used at a later time. C. Getting it out: retrieval o The process of recovering info stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it. II. Models of Memory A. Levels of processing model 1. Structural encoding - 2. Phonemic encoding - 3. Semantic encoding* (deep processing) -
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B. The Stage Model of Memory (Information Processing Model) o A model describing memory as consisting of three distinct stages: sensory memory, STM, LTM. o Memory is transferred from one stage to another. 1. Sensory memory: Fleeting impressions of the world (double takes) a. Description - The stage of memory that registers info from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time. - Briefly store sensory impressions so that they overlap slightly with one another. b. Types of sensory memory 1). Iconic sensory memory = visual sensory memory Brief memory of an image. George Sperling - a). Capacity of iconic memory Almost all – about 100% b). Duration of Iconic memory One-quarter to one-half second 2). Echoic sensory memory = auditory sensory memory a). Capacity of echoic memory Almost all in all b). Duration of echoic memory Three to four seconds. 2. Short-term (working) memory (STM): The workshop of consciousness a. Description - The active stage of memory in which info is stored for up to about 20 sec. b. The duration of STM: Going, going, gone! - For up to about 20 sec. - Maintenance rehearsal – The mental or verbal repetition of info in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20-sec duration of
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STM. - Info fades away or gets interference from new info. c. The capacity of STM: So that’s why there were Seven Dwarfs! - Limited. (7 + or – two) 1). Chunking o Increasing the amount of info that can be held in STM by grouping related items together into a single unit, or chunk. o Often involves the retrieval of meaningful info from LTM. d. From STM to working memory - Working memory – STM system involved in the temporary storage and active manipulation of info. - Three main components: phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive. 3. Long-term memory (LTM) a. Description - The stage of memory that represents the LTM storage of info. - b. Duration and capacity of long-term memory - 20 seconds – lifetime - Maximum capacity c. Encoding long-term memories 1). Maintenance rehearsal - The mental or verbal repetition of info in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20-sec duration of STM.
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