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Chapter 8 outline - Joel Diaz Chapter 8(pgs 334-371...

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Joel Diaz Chapter 8 (pgs. 334-371) – Motivation and Emotion - Motivation – The biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior - Some type of motivation is inferred when an organism performs a particular behavior. - Motivation: activation, persistence, and intensity - Activation – demonstrated by the initiation or production of behavior. - Persistence – demonstrated by continued effects or the determination to achieve a particular goal. I. Motivational Concepts and Theories A. Instinct Theories (Inborn Behaviors as Motivation) o Instinct theories – view that certain human behaviors are innate by evolutionary programming. o Inspired by Charles Darwin’s landmark theory of evolution o Lack of explanatory power B. Drive Theories (Biological needs as motivations) 1. Homeostasis and drive Drive theories – the view that behaviors is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs. Homeostasis – idea that the body monitors and maintains internal states, at relatively constant levels. Drive – a need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore homeostasis. C. Incentive Motivation (Goal objects as motivations) o View that behaviors is motivated by the pull of external goals such as rewards (Reinforcement/ expectation) D. Arousal Theory (Optimal stimulation as a motivator)
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o View that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal 1. Sensation seeking – degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with varied and novel activities. E. Humanistic Theories (Human potential as a motivator) o Humanistic theories of motivation – view that emphasizes the importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation, especially the notions that people are motivated to realize their personal potential. o Championed by psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. o Without a supportive and encouraging environment – personal, social, and cultural – the motivation to strive toward one’s highest potential could be jeopardized. II. Biological Motivation - Eating can be related to emotional states and eating is often used to foster relationships. A. Energy Homeostasis – Calories Consumed = Calories expended. o Glucose – simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by the conversation of carbohydrates and fats (Blood sugars) o Insulin – hormones produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels of glucose and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behaviors. o Basal metabolic rate (BMR) – when the body is at rest, the rate at which it uses energy for vital functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
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