Chapter2Outline - Joel Diaz Chapter 2 Neuroscience and...

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Unformatted text preview: Joel Diaz Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior I. An Overview of the nervous system (neural communication)- Biological psychology (biopsychology or psychobiology) – Specialized branch of psych that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems.- Neuroscience – The study of the nervous system, especially the brain. A. The neuron: the basic unit of communication- Neuron – Highly specialized cell that communicates info in electrical and chemical form. (A nerve cell)- Glial Cell – Support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes. 10 to 1 (Manufacture myelin) 1. Characteristics of the neuron a. Dendrites – Multiple short fibers that extend fro the neuron’s cell body and receive info from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells. (Some neurons have thousands of dendrites.) b. Soma or cell body – Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function. (Also contains the nucleus) c. Axon – The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron’s messages to other body areas.- Myelin sheath – A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed.- Occurs in segments that are separated by small gaps (nodes of Ranvier) where there is no myelin- Multiple sclerosis – the degeneration of patches of the myelin sheath. Causes the transmission of neural messages to be slowed or interrupted. 2. Law of forward conduction- All-or-none law – The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulate and an action potential does not occur.- Following the action potential, a refractory period occurs during which the neuron is able to fire (a thousandth of a second or less). 3. Types of neurons (pg. 47) a. Sensory/afferent neurons – Type of neuron that conveys info to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs. b. Motor/efferent neurons – Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract. c. Interneuron/association neurons – Type of neuron that communicates info from one neuron to the next.- Makes up most of the neurons on the human nervous system.- Connected to other neurons. B. Communication within the neuron: the all-or-none action potential 1. States of polarization and depolarization- Stimulus threshold – The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.- While waiting for sufficient stimulation to activate it, the neuron is said to be polarized. This means that there is a difference in the electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon....
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2012 for the course PSY PSY2012 taught by Professor Debbie during the Fall '10 term at Florida State College.

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Chapter2Outline - Joel Diaz Chapter 2 Neuroscience and...

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