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Unformatted text preview: Joel Diaz 09/16/09 Chapter 1 (pg. 16-35; A2-6; A8-11) I. Psychology: The Scientific Method- A set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide all scientists in conducting research.- Events are lawful and explainable- Psychologists are open-minded and have a healthy sense of scientific skepticism. A. Steps in a scientific investigation (standardized procedures > objectivity)- Empirical evidence – evidence that is the result of objective observation, measurement, and experimentation. 1. Formulate a hypothesis that can be tested and verified empirically- Hypothesis – a tentative statement that describes the relationship between two or more variables.- Variables – simply the factors hat can vary, or change- Changes must be capable of being observed, measured, and verified.- Operational definition – defines the variable in very specific terms as to how it will be measured, manipulated, or changed.- Spells out in very concrete and precise terms how the variables will be manipulated or measured. 2. Design the study and collect the data- Descriptive methods – research strategies for observing and describing behavior. (Answer the who, what, where, and when)- Experimental method – used to show that one variable causes change in a second variable. 3. Analyze the data and draw conclusions- Researchers use methods of statistics to analyze, summarize, and draw conclusions about the data they have collected.- Statistically significant – an indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance.- Mata-analysis – combines and analyzes the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends. 4. Report the findings- Who participated, how they were selected, how variables were operationally defined, what procedures or methods were used, how data were analyzed, and what the results seem to suggest.- Replicate – to duplicate a study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings. B. Building theories- Theory – a tentative explanation that tries to account for diverse findings on the same topic.- Tools for explaining behavior and mental processes.- Reflect the self-correcting nature of the scientific enterprise....
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2012 for the course PSY PSY2012 taught by Professor Debbie during the Fall '10 term at Florida State College.
- Fall '10