Chap1_2401 - Chapter 1 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY...

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C h a p t e r 1 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY Chapter 1 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture
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C h a p t e r 1 2 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY Why Study Anatomy and Physiology : 1. Knowledge of the Structure and Function of the human body provides the basis for understanding disease. 2. Knowledge of the Structure and Function of the human body is essential for those planning a career in the health sciences. 3. Knowledge of the Structure and Function of the human body is beneficial to nonprofessional because it helps with understanding overall health and disease, with evaluating, recommended treatment, and with critically reviewing advertisements and articles. Anatomy and Physiology are two branches of science that will help us understand our body parts and their functions. Anatomy – Is the scientific discipline that investigates the body’s structure. LEVELS OF ANATOMY 1. Developmental Anatomy – Is the study of the structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood. 2. Embryology – Is a subspecialty of developmental anatomy, considers changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development. 3. Cytology – Examines the structural features of cells. 4. Histology – Examines the tissues, which are cells and the materials surrounding them. 5. Gross (Macroscopic) Anatomy – Is the study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope, can be approached from either a systemic or regional perspective.
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C h a p t e r 1 3 6. Systemic Anatomy – Is the study of specific systems of the body, such as, the nervous system, respiratory system, etc. 7. Regional Anatomy – Is the study of a specific region of the body, such as, the head, the chest, abdomen, arm, etc. 8. Surface Anatomy – Is the study of the external form of the body and its relationship to deeper structures. 9. Anatomic imaging – Uses radiographs (x-rays), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures. Physiology : Physiology – Is the scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things. 1. Cell Physiology – Examines the processes occurring in cells. 2. Systems Physiology – Considers the functions of organs systems. 3. Pathophysiology - study of functional changes associated with disease and aging. 4. Neurophysiology – Focuses on the nervous system. 5. Cardiovascular Physiology - study of functions of the heart and blood vessels. 6. Pathology – Is the medical science dealing with all aspects of disease, with an emphasis on the cause and development of abnormal conditions as well as the structural changes resulting from disease. 7. Exercise Physiology – Focuses on changes in function, but also structure, caused by exercise.
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C h a p t e r 1 4 LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION (Fig. 1.1, page 3) (Several levels of structural organization that associated with one another in various ways): A. CHEMICAL LEVEL (the lowest level of organization) -Contains atoms, such as Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O),
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Chap1_2401 - Chapter 1 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY...

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