Chap2_2401 - Chapter 2 1 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION...

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C h a p t e r 2 1 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 2 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture
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C h a p t e r 2 2 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION 1. Human body is composed of chemicals and all body activities are chemical in nature. 2. Most food we eat and drink are chemical substances that function in our bodies to keep us alive. 3. To understand our body chemical make up, we need to know which chemical elements are present in the body (human organism) and how they interact. BASIC CHEMISTRY 1. The structure and function of your body result from thousands of interactions that take place at the chemical level of organization . 2. All life processes involve chemical reactions- e.g. - calcium participates in muscle contraction for movements; - sodium and potassium are necessary for nerve impulses related to responsiveness. 3. To understand the nature of the matter that composes your body and the changes it undergoes in health and in disease, you will need to know how it is organized and how different elements of matter interact with one another. MATTER AND ENERGY All living and nonliving things consist of matter. 1. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.
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C h a p t e r 2 3 Three States of Matter 1. Solid 2. Liquid 3. Gas (Although the terms mass and weight often are used interchangeably, there is a distinction.) Mass is the amount of matter that a substance contains. Weight is the gravitational force acting on an object of a given mass. (Although your mass is the same, your weight depends on where you are. In outer space, weight is close to zero but mass remains the same as it was on earth at sea level.) 2. Energy is the capacity to do work, that is, to put mass into motion. *Mass and energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but one can be converted into the other. Two Principal Kinds of Energy a. Potential Energy - inactive or stored energy. b. Kinetic Energy - energy of motion. *Energy (Potential or Kinetic) exists in several different forms: i Chemical Energy is the energy released or absorbed in the breaking apart or forming of chemicals. ii Radiant Energy such as heat and light, is energy that travels in waves. iii Electrical Energy results from the flow of electrons or other charged
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C h a p t e r 2 4 particles such as ions. -(Action potentials (impulses) in nerve and muscle cells are examples of electrical energy.) Chemical Elements All forms of Matter are made up of a limited number of building blocks called chemical elements . Chemical elements are substances that cannot be split into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions. -109 different elements are recognized by scientists; -92 of them occur in nature. *Elements are given letter abbreviations, usually derived from the first or first and second letters of the English or Latin name for the element called Chemical Symbols , e.g. H
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Chap2_2401 - Chapter 2 1 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION...

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