Chap4_2401 - Chapter 4 1 THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION...

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C h a p t e r 4 1 THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Chapter 4 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture
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C h a p t e r 4 2 THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION TISSUES AND HISTOLOGY Tissues – Are collections of similar cells and the substances surrounding them. Four Primary Types of Tissues: 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscle tissue 4. Nervous tissue Histology – Is the microscopic study of tissue. Pathologist - Is a physician who specializes in laboratory studies of cells and tissues. Biopsy - Is the process of removing tissue samples from patients surgically or with a needle for diagnostic purposes. Autopsy – Is an examination of the organs of a dead body to determine the cause of death or to study the changes caused by a disease. Types of Tissues and Their Origins Body tissue can be classified into four principal types according to their function and structure . 1. Epithelial tissue , which covers body surfaces; lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts, and forms glands. 2. Connective tissue , which protects and supports the body and its organs, binds organs together; stores energy reserves as fat; and provides immunity.
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C h a p t e r 4 3 3. Muscle tissue , which is responsible for movement and generation of force 4. Nervous tissue , which initiates and transmits action potential (nerve impulses) that help coordinate body activities. ***(About 8 days after fertilization, the mass of cells that results from several cell divisions embeds in the lining of the uterus and begins to form Primary Germ Layers.) EPITHELIAL TISSUE Two subtypes of Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium) I. Covering and Lining Epithelium II. Glandular Epithelium -Forms the outer covering of external body surfaces and the outer covering of some internal organs. -Lines body cavities and the interior of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, blood vessels, and ducts. -Makes up, along with nervous tissue, the parts of the sense organs for smell, hearing, vision, and touch which respond to stimuli. -Is the tissue from which gametes (sperm and eggs) develop. General Features of Epithelial Tissue (Note: Ten general features of epithelial tissue) Covering and Lining Epithelium (By layers and by shape )
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C h a p t e r 4 4 A. Arrangement of Layers 1. Simple Epithelium -If the cells of the tissue are arranged in a single layer. -If the epithelium is specialized for absorption or filtration. -If the epithelium is in an area that has minimal wear and tear. 2. Stratified Epithelium -If the cells of the tissue are stacked in several layers. -If the epithelium is found in an area with a high degree of wear and tear. 3. Pseudostratified Epithelium -Has only one layer of cell, but appear to have several. -Some of the cells do not reach the surface- an arrangement
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Chap4_2401 - Chapter 4 1 THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION...

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