Chap6_2401 - Chapter 6 1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM BONE TISSUE Chapter 6 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 6 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM BONE TISSUE

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C h a p t e r 6 1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: BONE TISSUE Chapter 6 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture
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C h a p t e r 6 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: BONE TISSUE Bone (Osseous) Tissue forms most of the skeleton : Skeletal System - the framework of bones and cartilage that protects our organs and allows us to move. Osteology - is the study of bone structure and treatment of bone disorders. (Without the skeletal system we would be unable to perform movements such as walking or grasping. The slightest jar to the head or chest could damage the brain or heart. It would even be impossible to chew.) FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 1. Support : Provides a framework for the body - supports soft tissues and provides a point of attachment for many muscles. 2. Protection : The brain is protected by the cranial bones; the spinal cord by the vertebrae; the heart and lungs by the rib cage; and internal reproductive organ by the pelvic bones. 3. Movement Facilitation : In conjunction with the muscles. 4. Storage : Store several minerals (e.g. calcium and phosphorus) that can be distributed to other parts of the body upon demand, are stored. Lipids stored in cells of yellow marrow are an important source of chemical energy. Yellow Marrow - consists primarily of adipose cells and a few scattered blood cells. 5. Blood Cell Production : Red marrow in certain bones is capable of producing blood cells, a process called Hematopoiesis or
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C h a p t e r 6 3 CARTILAGE Three Types of Cartilage; 1. Hyaline Cartilage 2. Fibrocartilage 3. Elastic Cartilage Most of the bones in the body develop from Hyaline cartilage. Specialized Cells of Hyaline Cartilage : 1. Chondroblasts – Cells that produce new cartilage matrix. 2. Chondrocyte - A Chondrocyte surrounded by matrix. Perichondrium – Is a double-layered connective tissue sheath covering most cartilage. Articular Cartilage – Is the cartilage covering the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. BONE ANATOMY Bones are classified according to their shape as long , short , flat or irregular . Long Bones – Are longer than they are wide. Most of the bones of the upper and lower limbs are long bones. Short Bones – Are about as broad as they are long. Are nearly cube-shaped or rounded, mainly of the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals) bones.
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C h a p t e r 6 4 Flat Bones – Have a relatively thin, flattened shape and are usually curved. Bones of the skull, ribs, the breastbone (sternum). Shoulder blade (scapulae). Structure of a Typical Long Bone A typical bone consists of the following parts: 1. Diaphysis : The shaft or long, main portion of the bone. Composed mainly of Compact Bone (bone matrix with few small spaces) 2. Epiphyses : The extremities or ends of the bone. Consists of Cancellous or Spongy bones . 3.
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2012 for the course BIOL 2403 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '12 term at Texas Pan American.

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Chap6_2401 - Chapter 6 1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM BONE TISSUE Chapter 6 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 6 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM BONE TISSUE

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