Chap7_2401 - THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON Chapter...

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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON Chapter 7 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1
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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM – THE AXIAL SKELETON Skeletal System forms the framework of the body. TYPES OF BONES: FOUR PRINCIPAL BASED ON SHAPE A. Long Bones - have greater length than width and consist of a diaphysis and a variable number of epiphyses Examples : Bones of the thighs, legs, toes, arms, forearms, and fingers. B. Short Bones - Are somewhat cube-shaped and nearly equal in length and width. Examples : Wrist and ankle bones. C. Flat Bones - Are generally thin and composed of two more or less parallel of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone. Examples : Cranial bones (which protect the brain); sternum and ribs (which protect organs in the thorax) and scapulas. D. Irregular Bones - Have complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any of the three categories. Example: Vertebrae and certain facial bones. Two Additional Bones Based on Location A. Sutural or Wormian Bones - Are small bones between joints of certain cranial bones. 2
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B. Sesamoid Bones - Are small bones in tendons where considerable pressure develops, for instance, in the wrist. Examples : Patellas (kneecaps). DIVISIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Adult human skeleton usually consist of 206 named bones. Tubercle or Process – Where ligament or tendon attached. Smooth Surface – Part of a joint and was covered with articular cartilage. Foramen – Was occupied by nerves or blood vessel. Sinuses – Contained mucous membrane-line air spaces. Grouped in Two Principal Division: 1. Axial Skeleton - Consists of the bones that lie around the axis: ribs, breast-bone, hyoid bone, bones of the skull, and backbone. 2. Appendicular Skeleton - contains the bones of the free appendages (upper and lower extremities (limbs)), plus the girdles , which connect the extremities to the axial skeleton. 3
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Number of Named Bones Listed By Category Note : Complete Skeleton and Named Bones. Region of the Skeleton Number of bones Axial Skeleton A. Skull: 1. Cranium 8 2 . F a c e 1 4 B . H y o i d 1 C. Auditory Ossicles (3 in each ear) 6 D. Vertebral Column 26 E. Thorax 1 . S t e r n u m 1 2 . R i b s 24 80 Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral (shoulder) girdles C l a v i c l e 2 Scapula 2 Upper Extremities
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SKULL -Contains 22 bones -Rests on the superior end of the vertebral column, -Composed of two sets of bones: a) Cranial Bones - enclose and protect the brain. 8 Cranial Bones Frontal Bone Parietal Bones (2) Temporal Bones (2) Occipital Bone Sphenoid Bone Ethmoid Bone b) Facial Bones - constitutes the facial structure Nasal Bones (2) M a x i l l a e Zygomatic Bones (2) Mandible Lacrimal Bones (2) Palatine Bones (2)
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2012 for the course BIOL 2403 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '12 term at Texas Pan American.

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Chap7_2401 - THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON Chapter...

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