Chap8_2401 - THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON GROSS...

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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON GROSS ANATOMY Chapter 8 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1
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APPENDICULAR SKELETON Appendicular Skeleton includes bones of the A. Pectoral Girdles (shoulder); B. Pelvic Girdles (Hip); C. Upper Extremities; and D. Lower Extremities. PECTORAL (SHOULDER) GIRDLE -Attach the bones of the Upper Extremities to the Axial Skeleton. -Have no articulation with the vertebral column. (Although the shoulder joints are not very stable, they are freely movable and thus allow movement in many directions.) *Each of the two Pectoral Girdles consist of two bones. 1) A clavicle ; and 2) A scapula 1. Clavicle or Collar Bones -Are long, slender bones with a double curvature. -Are the anterior component and articulates with the sternum at the Sternoclavicular joint . Sternal Extremity is the medial end of the clavicle where it articulates with the sternum . Acromial Extremity is the lateral end of the clavicle where it articulates with the Acromion of the scapula , a joint called Acromioclavicular joint . 2
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2. Scapula or Shoulder Blades -Are large, triangular, flat bone -Are the posterior component and articulate with clavicle and humerus. -Situated in the posterior part of the thorax between the levels of the second and seventh ribs. Spine is a sharp ridge that runs diagonally across the posterior surface of the flattened, triangular body . Acromion is the end of the spine that projects as a flattened expanded process; easily felt as the high point of the shoulder. Glenoid Cavity (Fossa) a depression inferior to Acromion. (This cavity articulates with the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint .) Medial (Vertebral) Border is the thin edge of the body near the vertebral column. Lateral (Axillary) Border is the thick edge closer to the arm. UPPER EXTREMITY Consist of 60 bones. *Each upper extremity includes: 1. Humerus- in the arm 2. Ulna and Radius - in the forearm 3. Carpals (wrist bones) 3
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4. Metacarpals (palm bones) 5. Phalanges in the fingers of the hand Humerus or Arm Bone -Is the longest and largest bone of the upper extremity. -Articulates proximally with the scapula and distally at the elbow with both ulna and radius. *Proximal end of the Humerus consists of : Head - articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Anatomical Neck
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Chap8_2401 - THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON GROSS...

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