CHAP25_2402 - C h a p t e r 2 5 BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and...

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Unformatted text preview: C h a p t e r 2 5 BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and Physiology lecture Chapter 25 METABOLISM AND NUTRITION C h a p t e r 2 5 2 METABOLISM AND NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS *Unlike plants, we cannot harness the energy of sunlight to provide energy for our own needs. Food is our only source of energy for performing biological work such as: & Synthesis of protein & Contraction of muscle & Mitosis & Active transport Three Fates of Food Molecules Absorbed by the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract: 1. Most are used to supply energy for sustaining life processes, for example, active transport, DNA replication, synthesis of proteins and other molecules, and muscle contraction. 2. Some are used as building block during synthesis of structural or functional molecules such as muscle proteins, hormones, and enzymes. 3. Others are stored for future use, for example, glycogen stored in liver cells and triglycerides stored in adipose cells. NUTRITION Nutrition – Is the process by which certain components of food are obtained and used by the body. The process includes: - Digestion - Absorption - Transportation - Cell metabolism C h a p t e r 2 5 3 NUTRIENTS Nutrients – Are the chemicals taken into the body that are used to produce energy, provide building blocks for new molecules, or function in other chemical reactions. Three Functions Of Nutrients: 1. Most are used to supply energy for sustaining life processes, such as active transport, DNA replication, synthesis of proteins and other molecules, muscle contraction, and nerve impulse conduction. 2. Some are used to synthesize structural or functional molecules such as muscle proteins, hormones, and enzymes. 3. Some are stored for future use, for example, glycogen stored in liver cells. Six Principal Classes of Nutrients (1) Carbohydrates, (2) Lipids, and (3) Proteins Digested by enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract (GI). End products that reach body cells are Amino Acids, fatty acids, glycerol, monoglycerides and monosaccharides . Uses: 1) synthesize new structural molecules; 2) produce energy for active transport, DNA replication, muscle contraction, etc. * Energy is stored in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) until needed. 4) Minerals, and 5) Vitamins Part of enzyme systems that catalyze the reactions undergone by carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. C h a p t e r 2 5 4 6) Water & Excellent solvent and suspending medium & Participates in hydrolysis reaction & Acts as a coolant & Lubricates & Helps maintain a constant body temperature by its ability to release and absorb heat slowly How does each group of nutrients contribute to the body's growth, repair, and energy needs? REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE *When the energy content of our body balances the energy needs of all the cells of our body, we stay at the same weight....
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2012 for the course BIOL 2403 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '12 term at Texas Pan American.

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CHAP25_2402 - C h a p t e r 2 5 BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and...

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