CHAP26_2402 - Chapter 26 1 BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and...

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C h a p t e r 2 6 1 BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 26 THE URINARY SYSTEM
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C h a p t e r 2 6 2 THE URINARY SYSTEM (Metabolism of nutrients results in the production of wastes by body cells, including carbon dioxide , excess water , and heat .) A human waste product is any substance that has no function in the body. (Protein catabolism produces toxic nitrogenous wastes such as ammonia and much less toxic urea .) (In addition, many of the essential ions such as sodium , chloride , sulfate , phosphate , and hydrogen tend to accumulate in excess of the body's need.) *(All the toxic materials and the excess essential materials must be eliminated.) Several Tissues, Organs, and Processes that contribute to the temporary confinement of wastes, transport of waste materials for disposal, recycling of material, and excretion of excess or toxic substances in the body are : 1. Body buffers . Bind excess hydrogen ions (H + ), which prevent an increase in the acidity of body fluids. 2. Blood . The bloodstream provides pick-up and delivery services for the transport of wastes, just like garbage trucks and sewer lines supply the same service for a community. 3. Liver . Is the primary site for metabolic recycling, for example, conversion of amino acids into glucose or glucose into fatty acids. Also changes toxic substances into less toxic ones, such as ammonia into urea. 4. Lungs . With each exhalation, the lungs excrete CO 2 , heat, and a little water vapor. 5. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands in the skin . Especially during exercise, sudoriferiou glands in the skin help eliminate excess
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C h a p t e r 2 6 3 heat, waste, water, and CO 2 plus small quantities of salts and urea. 6. Gastrointestinal tract . Through defecation, the gastrointestinall tract eliminates solid, undigested foods, wastes, some CO 2 , water, salts, and heat. 7. Kidneys . Eliminates excess water, ammonia, urea, bilirubin, uric acid, some bacteria toxins, H + and other ions, plus some heat and CO 2 . FUCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM 1. Filtration of the blood 2. Regulation of blood volume 3. Regulation of the concentration of solutes in the blood 4. Regulation of the pH of the extracellular fluid 5. Regulation of red blood cell synthesis 6. Vitamin D synthesis Make up of the urinary system 1) Two kidneys 2) Two ureters 3) One urinary bladder 4) a single urethra (Does so by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes that constitute urine). Nephrology is the specialized branch of medicine that deals with the structure, function, and diseases of the male and female urinary systems
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C h a p t e r 2 6 4 and the male reproductive system. Urology is the branch of medicine related to the male and female urinary systems and the male reproductive system. KIDNEYS
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CHAP26_2402 - Chapter 26 1 BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and...

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