CHAP28_2402 - Chapter 28 1 BIOLOGY 2402 ANATOMY AND...

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C h a p t e r 2 8 1 BIOLOGY 2402 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II Chapter 28 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTME
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C h a p t e r 2 8 2 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Reproduction is the process by which new individuals of a species are produced and the genetic material is passed from generation to generation. Maintains continuation of the species. (Cell division in a multicellular organism is necessary for growth and repair and it involves passing of genetic material from parent cells to daughter cells.) Male and female reproductive systems grouped by function 1. Production of gametes. 2. Production of hormones Testes - Production of male gametes (sperm cells) (a) Gonads (seeds) & Ovaries - Production of female gametes (ova) Gametes/Fluids Hormones Ducts --------------------- Gonads--------------------------- Blood system As Exocrine Glands As Endocrine Glands (b) Ducts of the reproductive systems transport , receive , and store gametes. (c) Accessory sex glands produce materials that support gametes. (d) Supporting structures , including penis, have various roles in reproduction.
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C h a p t e r 2 8 3 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Organs of Male Reproductive System: 1) Gonads or Testes - Produce gametes 2) Ducts - Transport and store gametes. 3) Accessory sex glands - Produce materials that support gametes. 4) Supporting structures Structures of Male Reproductive System : 1) Testes 2) Ductus Epididymis 3) Ductus (Vas) Deferens 4) Ejaculatory Duct 5) Urethra 6) Seminal Vesicles 7) Prostate gland 8) Bulbourethral (Cowper's) Gland 9) Penis Scrotum 1. The Scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. 2. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the cremaster muscle , which elevates them and brings them closer to the pelvic cavity or relaxes causing testes to move farther from the pelvic cavity. -(Production and survival of sperm require a temperature that is about 3°C lower than normal core body temperature.)
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C h a p t e r 2 8 4 Testes or Testicles The testes are paired oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum. -Contains Seminiferous tubules in which sperm cells are made, by a process called spermatogenesis . Spermatogenic cells are sperm-forming cells in various stages that undergo mitosis and differentiate to eventually produce sperm. Spermatogonia is the most immature spermatogenic cells. They lie next to the basement cells. Sustentacular (sertoli) cells which nourish sperm cells and secrete inhibin. To reach the developing gametes, substances must first pass through the sustentacular cells. Blood-testis barrier - Is a tight junction internal to the basement membrane, which joins sustentacular cells to one another. This barrier is important because spermatogenic cells have surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system. The barrier prevents an immune response against the surface antigens by
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CHAP28_2402 - Chapter 28 1 BIOLOGY 2402 ANATOMY AND...

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