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Chapter 7 The Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton

Chapter 7 The Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton - The Skeletal...

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The Skeletal System: Appendicular Skeleton Bonnie S. Gunn 1
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The  appendicular skeleton  includes the bones of  the upper and lower extremities and the shoulder  and hip girdles. The appendicular skeleton functions primarily to  facilitate movement. 2
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The  pectoral  or  shoulder girdle  attaches the bones  of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton. Consists of scapula and clavicle  Clavicle articulates with sternum (sternoclavicular  joint) Clavicle articulates with scapula  (acromioclavicular joint) Scapula held in place by muscle only Upper limb attached to pectoral girdle at shoulder  (glenohumeral joint) 3
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The  clavicle  or  collar bone  lies horizontally in the  superior and anterior part of thorax superior to the  first rib and articulates with the sternum and the  clavicle. The clavicle, one of the most frequently broken  bones in the body, transmits mechanical force  from the upper limb to the trunk.  4
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S-shaped bone with two  curves medial curve convex  anteriorly/lateral one  concave anteriorly Extends from sternum to  scapula above 1st rib Fracture site is junction of  curves  Ligaments attached to clavicle  stabilize its position. 5
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The  scapula  or  shoulder blade  articulates with the  clavicle and the humerus The scapulae articulate with other bones  anteriorly, but are held in place posteriorly only by  complex shoulder and back musculature. 6
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Subscapular fossa filled with muscle  Coracoid process for muscle attachment 7
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Triangular flat bone found in upper back region Scapular spine ends as acromion process a sharp ridge widening to a flat process Glenoid cavity forms shoulder joint with head of  humerus Supraspinous & infraspinous fossa for muscular  attachments 8
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Each upper limb = 30 bones humerus within the arm ulna & radius within the forearm carpal bones within the wrist metacarpal bones within the palm phalanges in the fingers Joints  shoulder (glenohumeral), elbow,  wrist, metacarpophalangeal,  interphalangeal 9
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The  humerus  is the longest and largest bone of  the upper limb It articulates proximally with the scapula and  distally at the elbow with both the radius and ulna.
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