104Ch4 - The Developing Person Through Childhood and 7th...

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Unformatted text preview: The Developing Person Through Childhood and 7th Edition Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Prenatal Development and Birth, Chapter 4 Slides revised by Nicole Porter CLDDV 104 Modesto Junior College The Start of the Journey Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal Period (0-2 weeks) Conception occurs in fallopian tubes Cell differentiation and multiplication 60% typical and 70% of invitro fail to implant. Stages of Prenatal Development (cont.) Embryonic Period (3-8 weeks) CNS develops, heart begins to beat Head, mouth, intestines take shape At 8 weeks, organism is less than 2 long! Fetal Period (9 weeks-birth) Sex organs, eyelids, and fingernails develop as well as movement, wk 14 Fetus blinks, grasp, moves mouth and hair develops, wk 18 Brain development is significant Age of viability occurs around 22 weeks The Fetus S. J. ALLEN / INTERNATIONAL STOCK PHOTO Stages of Prenatal Development (cont.) Age of viability is the age at which a preterm newborn might survive. Weight plays a crucial role Only 20% under 1 pounds survive By 28 weeks, survival rate is 95% Make it Real: Do's and Don'ts of Pregnancy List some things you have heard that a woman should or shouldn't do while pregnant. Risk Reduction Teratology = the study of birth defects Teratogens = harmful agents to the developing organism Examples: diseases (e.g., rubella), lifestyle choices (e.g., drug use), medications, toxins Teratology is a science of risk analysis. Determining Risk Timing of exposure Critical period is the time of greatest vulnerability (for each body structure) Dose and Frequency Threshold Effect Interaction Effect Amount of exposure Genetic vulnerability Ex. Folic Acid Ethnicity, sex (males as greater risk) Interactive Question List medications that a doctor prescribed to you or someone you know while pregnant? Critical Periods of Development Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Caused by heavy drinking (> 5 drinks/day) Causes severe cognitive, physical, and behavioral deficits Is the leading behavioral cause of mental retardation Fetal Alcohol Syndrome BOTH: GEORGE STEINMETZ Cigarette Smoking Cigarette smoking cuts off oxygen to the developing baby by 20%, significantly increasing the risk of having a low birthweight newborn. Knowledge and Responsibility Development depends on health, nutrition, prenatal care and abstinence or avoiding teratogens that may cause birth defects. Methods which may provide information about the development of the fetus include: Genetic Counseling Pre-Pregnancy During Amniocentesis Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) Ultrasound Alpha-fetoprotein assay (AFP) Prenatal Diagnosis Amniocentesis Chorionic Villus Sampling Birthweight The average weight of a newborn is 7 lbs. LBW is considered less than 5 lbs. VLBW less than 3lbs. ELBW less than 2lbs. SGA Preterm is less than 35 weeks. PHOTODISC Possible Causes of LBW Lifestyle choices e.g., cigarette smoking accounts for 25% of LBW births worldwide! Maternal malnutrition Multiple births Prescription drugs Unknown causes The Birth Process: Methods of Delivery Hospital (majority of U.S. births) Birthing centers (5%) At home (1%) Doula: someone who helps women with labor, delivery, breastfeeding Cesarean Section (28%) Intended for emergencies Three Stages of Labor Newborn's First Minutes Apgar Scale An assessment of risk taken 1 and 5 minutes after birth Measures 5 vital signs Score of 7 or higher = infant is fine Score below 7 = infant needs help breathing Score below 4 = infant needs critical care Cesarean section is performed in about 28% of U.S. births. Birth Complications Cerebral Palsy includes difficulties with movement control, often resulting from a combination of genetic vulnerability and anoxia (lack of oxygen). Bacterial infection caused by GBS Intensive Care for Infants Kangaroo care: allows the parents of an infant in intensive care to be involved, holding the newborn at least an hour a day This helps the newborns sleep better and become more alert when awake. It also helps with bonding. Long-Term Effects of Intensive Care There are some long-term delays for preterm infants (e.g., slower to communicate, hold bottle). Infants with serious defects who survive often have long-lasting disabilities. However, ongoing family support and services make a big difference in outcome. The Importance of Support Mothers in Mexico receive exceptional support during pregnancy (familia)this correlates with fewer LBW births, despite lower incomes and less prenatal care than Mexican immigrants in the U.S. A parental alliance between father and mother of the developing baby is key! Postpartum Depression 8-15% of women experience postpartum depression, a sense of inadequacy and sadness after birth. Possible causes: preexisting depression, stress, marital problems, infant difficulties Postpartum Depression (cont.) Symptoms include irritability, sleep and eating disruptions, sadness, feeling overwhelmed and inadequate as a mom, no interest in baby, or overly worried about baby. Antidepressants and support help. "Look out world, here I come!" PHOTODISC ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2012 for the course PSYCH 3307 taught by Professor Valerie during the Spring '12 term at Texas Pan American.

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