104Ch6 - The Developing Person Through Childhood and...

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Unformatted text preview: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 6 The First Two Years: Cognitive Development Slides prepared by Nicole Porter, CLDDV 104 Modesto Junior College Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 What are some things we already know about cognitive development"? Described under what characteristic of human development? ( Hint, chapter 1) Involves all mental processes one uses to obtain knowledge of information about the environment. Encompasses perception, imagination, judgment, memory, language, informal and formal education Ability to understand connections among objects, language and words. Who was on the pioneers of cognitive development? Jean Piaget (born 1896) was a pioneer in studying cognitive development in humans. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Sensorimotor Intelligence Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, characterized by learning through senses and motor actions. PHOTODISC Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Sensorimotor activity Stages One and Two of Sensorimotor Intelligence Stage One: the stage of reflexes (birth) Uncoordinated and purposeless movements Stage Two: first acquired adaptations (1-4months) Example: An infant sucks a bottle differently than the mother's nipple. Change from reflexes turn into repeated responses. Adaptation occurs through assimilation (taking in) or accommodation (output). Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Stages Three and Four of Sensorimotor Intelligence Stage Three: making interesting sights last (4-8 months) Example: infant smiles when someone shakes a rattle Secondary circular reactions: move from self-centered to responding to environment. Stage Four: new adaptations and anticipation (8-12 months) The infant shows goaldirected behavior Object permanence begins to emerge Intentional behavior Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Stage Five of Sensorimotor Intelligence Stage Five: new means through active exploration and experimentation (1218 months) Piaget called infants in this stage "little scientists" because of their need for experimentation. Example: An infant drops her spoon to see what will happen. Child begins to use new means to achieve an end. Example: A child will tilt an item to fit it between stairs or play pen or pulling the string to get the toy. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Stage Six of Sensorimotor Intelligence Stage Six: new means through mental combinations (18months 2 years) Transition from physical to mental. Infants can think before taking action, for example, wondering "should I really pull that cat's tail." Imitation and pretending occur. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Piaget and Research Methods Piaget was limited to the types of tools that were accessible during his time. Advanced research tools: Habituation studies: decline in attention to a stimulus that has been repeated. fMRI (function magnetic resonance imaging): Brain activity measurements Findings: Earlier occurrences of stages for most infants than what Piaget predicted. These findings do not negate Piaget's work, only update it. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Quiz: Which stage is this? ESBIN-ANDERSON / THE IMAGE WORKS Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Quiz: This is an example of what? LDWA-DANN TARDIFF / CORBIS Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Information Processing Theory Information processing theory focuses on the step-by-step description of the mechanisms of human thought at any age. Research on memory and "affordances" stem from this theory. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 "Environment affords opportunities" Affordances = opportunities for perception and interaction that environment offers These depend on: Past experiences Current developmental/maturational level Sensory awareness of opportunities Immediate needs and motivation Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Types of Affordances Visual Cliff: ability to measure or judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves (depth perception) Motion: first type of depth cue to which infants are sensitive. Why? Dynamic perception: focus on movement and change People preference: from day one infants listen to voices, smell and are soothed by touch Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Make it Real: Memory What is your earliest memory? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Memory Even very young infants (3 months) can remember IF: Experimental conditions are "real life" Motivation is high Special measures aid memory retrieval (repetition and reminders) Example: Rovee-Collier's mobile experiment Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Mobiles and Memories MICHAEL NEWMAN / PHOTOEDIT Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Memory (cont.) Deferred imitation begins by 9 months, becoming more elaborate with age. Example: A young infant imitates hitting the dog, a behavior modeled by an older sibling. Implicit memory (for routines) develops sooner than explicit memory (for facts). Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Language Development Terms Linguistics: study of language Phonetics-articulation and speech sounds Phonemes- patterns of sounds Morphemes- words Syntax-arrangement of words Semantics-study of meaning Pragmantics- language use in social contexts Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 First noises and gestures Infants are noisy! They coo, squeal, cry, yell, grunt, gurgle Infants prefer childdirected speech High-pitched, simplified, repetitive speech of adults Babbling is repeating certain syllables (e.g., dada-da). All babies babble, even deaf babies (although later and less frequently). Babbling is a way to communicate. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 First Words First words usually appear around 1 year. Important to them and their environment. Meaning behind the word. They are often familiar nouns. (Have you ever heard of an infant's first word being "stapler"?) Overgeneralization (overextension): one word to represent many ideas or objects. Underextension: child will apply the word to one specific object or idea. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Sentences A holophrase is a single word that expresses an entire thought (e.g., "juice"). Two-word sentences appear around 21 months, and remarkably, follow proper grammar. Example: "more juice", not "juice more" Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Make it Real: Language What types of language are represented in the communities we live in or work in? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 What ways can we as professionals, parents or caregivers incorporate one's home language into the learning environment? NAEYC states to: Actively involve families in the early learning programs. Help families realize the benefit of a child knowing more than one language. Convince families that their home's cultural values and norms are honored. Ensure that children remain cognitively, linguistically and emotionally connected to their home language and culture. Encourage homelanguage and literacy development knowing that this contributes to children's ability to acquire English language proficiency. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Theories of Language Learning There are 3 theories of how infants learn language: They are taught (view of B. F. Skinner) They teach themselves (view of Noam Chomsky) Social impulses foster learning Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Theory One: Infants Are Taught B. F. Skinner argued that infants learn language by: Associating objects with words heard often Reinforcement and praise for correct words Correction of incorrect words Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Support for Theory One Careful research by Hart and Risley (1995) has demonstrated that infants of parents who spoke more words had superior language development. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves Noam Chomsky argued that language is far too complex to be learned through step-by-step conditioning. Infants make up words they have never heard before (e.g., "runned"). Child's Speech Adult Speech He believed a language acquisition device (LAD) exists only in humans. Grammatical Knowledge (rules) General Language Learning Principles Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Infant Language This theory argues that the social desire to communicate drives infants to learn language. Example: Upon hearing a new word, an infant looks to where the adult is looking before assuming an association between the word and object. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 A Hybrid Theory An emergentist coalition combines aspects of several theories. Different theories may apply at different ages. Culture plays a role in language learning. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 How about a bedtime story? Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 A Note for Caregivers Engaging a young infant in the wonder of language, through reading, talking, singing, etc., is giving that infant an amazing gift. He or she will have a head start on learning language and developing a strong vocabulary! Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2012 for the course PSYCH 3307 taught by Professor Valerie during the Spring '12 term at Texas Pan American.

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