darwinism midterm review notes

darwinism midterm review notes - I William Paley a The...

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I. William Paley a. The watch and the watchmaker: animals like a clock- have parts with purpose => maker b. to explain complexity, adaptation II. John Ray a. used reproduction to define species (likeness begets likeness) (mainly on plants) b. observational similarities used to classify birds c. bottom-up classification (observational) d. fossils not once-living organisms, because no extinction (against God) e. believed in design III. Robert Hooke a. Micrographia , adaptations of minute organisms evidence of design b. Fossils as remains of once-living organisms c. Earth must have transformed (land shifted) since creation IV. Niels Stenson- Nicola Steno a. fossils laid in water b. different strata, rock layers horizontally (principle of original horizontality)=different time periods, oldest at the bottom law of superposition) unless later processes disturb arrangement c. neptunist? V. John Woodward a. crust of earth didn’t collapse, but dissolved by flood then heavier things settled to the bottom, making strata VI. Thomas Burnet a. Biblical account of Earth b. Earth once solid rock, lacking mountains/water c. sun dried out earth, cracking and collapsing surface, causing waters below to boil up and burst over the surface=Great Flood VII. Edward Tyson a. anatomy of Chimp b. chimp between man and monkey on ladder VIII. Carl Linnaeus a. inclusive hierarchy: class, order, genus, species b. c. each species went back to a single set of parents d. great flood explains creation, all things living on mountain island (with different climates) surrounded by ocean e. God must be orderly, thus nature has an order, must discover this to classify (real classification) f. balance of nature- interactions between plants/animals and physical environment were harmonious; imbalance temporary and quickly remedied g. species eternal h. sexual species of classification (marriage of plants) IX. Buffon
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a. all species did not originate from a single point of origin b. species created by separate events in different regions; arisen where they
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darwinism midterm review notes - I William Paley a The...

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