The Human Body in Health and Disease

The Human Body in Health and Disease - The Human Body in...

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The Human Body in Health and Disease 1. ANATOMY IS THE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURES OF THE BODY 2. PHYSIOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE STRUCTURES OF THE BODY 3. PHYSI- NATURE OR PHYSICAL 4. -OLOGY THE STUDY OF 5. ANATOMIC POSITION DESCRIBES THE BODY, ASSUMING THAT: 1. STANDING STRAIGHT, FACING FORWARD 2. HOLDING ARMS AT SIDES, HANDS TURNED TO THE FRONT. 6. BODY PLANES IMAGINARY VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINES USED TO DIVIDE THE BODY INTO SECTIONS FOR DESCRIPTIVE PURPOSES. ALIGNED TO BODY IN ANATOMIC POSITION. 7. VERTICAL PLANE UP AND DOWN PLANE THAT IS A RIGHT ANGLE TO THE HORIZON. 8. MIDSAGITTAL PLANE (MIDLINE) SAGITTAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY INTO EQUAL LEFT AND RIGHT HALVES. 9. SAGITTAL PLANE
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VERTICAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES BODY INTO UNEQUAL LEFT AND RIGHT POSITIONS. 10. FRONTAL PLANE (CORONAL PLANE) VERTICAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES THAT BODY INTO ANTERIOR (FRONT) AND POSTERIOR (BACK) PORTIONS. 11. HORIZONTAL PLANE FLAT CROSSWISE PLANE 12. TRANSVERSE PLANE HORIZONTAL PLANE THAT DIVIDES THE BODY INTO SUPERIOR (UPPER) AND INFERIOR (LOWER) PORTIONS. CAN BE AT THE WAIST OR ANY OTHER LEVEL ACROSS THE BODY. 13. SKELETAL SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES: BONES, JOINTS, AND CARTILAGE MAJOR FUNCTIONS: SUPPORTS AND SHAPES THE BODY. PROTECTS THE INTERNAL ORGANS. FORMS SOME BLOOD CELLS AND STORES MINERALS. 14. MUSCULAR SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES:MUSCLES, FASCIA, AND TENDONS
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MAJOR FUNCTIONS: HOLDS THE BODY ERECT. MAKES MOVEMENT POSSIBLE. MOVES BODY FLUIDS AND GENERATES BODY HEAT. 15. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES: HEART, ARTERIES, VEINS, CAPILLARIES, AND BLOOD. MAJOR FUNCTIONS: BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGHOUT THE BODY TO TRANSPORT OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS TO CELLS AND TO CARRY WASTE PRODUCTS TO THE KIDNEYS WHERE WASTE IS REMOVED TO FILTRATION. 16. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES: LYMPH, LYMPHATIC VESSELS, AND LYMPH NODES MAJOR FUNCTIONS: REMOVES AND TRANSPORTS WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE FLUID BETWEEN THE CELLS. DESTROYS HARMFUL SUBSTANCES SUCH AS PATHOGENS AND CANCER CELLS IN THE LYMPH NODES. RETURNS THE FILTERED LYMPH TO THE BLOODSTREAM WHERE IT BECOMES PLASMA AGAIN. 17. IMMUNE SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES: TONSILS, SPLEEN, THYMUS, SKIN, AND SPECIALIZED BLOOD CELLS MAJOR FUNCTIONS: DEFENDS THE BODY AGAINST INVADING PATHOGENS AND ALLERGENS. 18. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES: NOSE, PHARYNX, TRACHEA, LARYNX, AND LUNGS MAJOR FUNCTIONS: BRINGS OXYGEN INTO THE BODY FOR TRANSPORTATION TO THE CELLS. REMOVES CARBON DIOXIDE AND SOME WATER WASTE FROM THE BODY. 19. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES: MOUTH, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINES, LARGE INTESTINES, LIVER, AND PANCREAS. MAJOR FUNCTIONS: DIGESTS INGESTED FOOD SO IT CAN BE ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM . ELIMINATES SOLID WASTE. 20. URINARY SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES: KIDNEYS, URETERS, URINARY BLADDER, AND URETHRA MAJOR FUNCTIONS: FILTERS BLOOD TO REMOVE WASTE. MAINTAINS THE ELECTROLYTE AND FLUID BALANCE WITHIN THE BODY.
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The Human Body in Health and Disease - The Human Body in...

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