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Unformatted text preview: Style Approach Team S.W.A.T. Research on Leadership Styles Many research studies could be categorized under the heading of style approach, only a few strongly represent the idea Ohio state University of Michigan Studies by Blake and Mouton Ohio State Studies Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LDBQ) Administered to hundreds of individuals in various fields Two general types of leader behaviors Initiating structure (Task) Consideration (Relational) University of Michigan Studies Studied leaders' behaviors performance on small group performance Two behaviors identified: Employee orientation Leaders approach with strong human relations emphasis Leadership behaviors that stress technological advancement and production aspects of the job Production orientation Results Behaviors viewed as distinct and independent (two different continua) The degree to which a leader exhibited one behavior was not related to the degree to which he or she exhibited the other behavior When two behaviors were treated as independent orientations, leaders were seen as being able to be oriented to both Determining how a leader optimally mixed task and relationship behaviors has been the central task for research in style approach Style Approach Emphasizes the behavior of the leader Focuses exclusively on what leaders do and how they act Explains how leaders combine two kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates in efforts to reach a goal Task Behaviors vs. Relational Behaviors Task Behaviors Facilitates goal accomplishment Relationship Behaviors Help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves, with each other, and with the groups situation Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid of Style Approach Most well-known model of leader behavior Explains how leaders help organizations to reach their purposes through two factors: Concern for production How a leader is concerned with achieving organizational tasks Concern for people How a leader attends to the people with the organization who are trying to achieve its goals. Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid of Style Approach Joins concern for production and concern for people on two intersecting axes X axis = concern for results Y axis = concern for people Portrays five major leadership styles: Authority-Compliance (9,1) Country Club management (1,9) Impoverished management (1,1) Middle-of-the-Road management (5,5) Team management (9,9) Authority-Compliance Management Places heavy emphasis on task and job requirements Less emphasis on people Communication under-emphasized Leadership is controlling, demanding, and overpowering Country Club Management Low concern for task accomplishment High concern for interpersonal relationships De-emphasis on production Leadership characterized as agreeable, eager to help, comforting, and uncontroversial Impoverished Management No concern for task, as well as interpersonal relationships Going through the motions with lack of involvement Leaderships described as indifferent, noncommittal, resigned, and apathetic Middle-of-the-Road Management Leaders are compromisers Immediate concern for task and interpersonal relationship Leader avoids conflict and emphasizes moderate levels of production and relations with others to establish equilibrium Leaders are described as one who is expedient, soft-pedals disagreement, and is interested in group progress over their own convictions Team Management Places strong emphasis on both tasks and interpersonal relationships Promotes high degree of participation and teamwork Satisfies a basic need in employees to be involved and committed to their work Leaders characterized as clear, open-minded, determined, and one who stimulates participation Combined Styles Blake and his colleagues have identified two styles that incorporate multiple aspects of the grid Paternalism/Maternalism Leaders uses both (1,9) and (9,1) styles but does not integrate the two Opportunistic Leader uses any combination of the basic five styles for purpose of personal advancement How does the Style Approach work? Provides framework for assessing leadership behaviors in a broad way and general way Gives leaders a way to look at their behavior by subdividing it into the two dimensions Reminds leaders that their impact occurs through both the task they perform and the relationship they create. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Style Approach Strengths Easily applied Studies on leadership style validates and gives credibility to the approach Provides core of the leadership process Can be used as a heuristic (cognitive map) Approach applies to everything a leader does Hasn't adequately shown how leaders' styles are associated with performance outcomes There is no universal leadership style Implies that the most effective leadership style is the Team Management style (9,9) Weaknesses ...
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- Fall '11