NTR 109 - Lecture #1

NTR 109 - Lecture #1 - Nutrition Standards and Guidelines...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Nutrition Standards and Guidelines Nutrition is... "the science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, absorbs, transport, utilizes, and excretes food substances"----The Council on Food and Nutrition of the American Medical Association Why is Nutrition Important? Diet plays an important role in over 2/3 of deaths in the U.S. When alcohol is included, diet plays a role in almost of deaths in the U.S. Top Ten Leading Causes of Death Nutrition and Health Maintain optimal health "Affliction of Affluence" We are living longer Review Nutrients 6 Classes of nutrients: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Carbohydrate Fat Protein Water Vitamins Minerals Nutrients Caloric Values of Energy Nutrients Carbohydrate = 4 calories/gram Protein = 4 calories/gram Fat = 9 calories/gram Example Calculation A hamburger has 4 g carbohydrate, 3 g of protein and 5 g of fat. How many calories does it contain? 4 g carb x 4 Kcals/g = 16 Kcals 3 g protein x 4 Kcals/g = 12 Kcals 5 g fat x 9 Kcals/g = 45 Kcals Total = 73 Kcals Good exam Question!!!!! (Hint Hint) Transformation of Energy CHO (4 Kcal/g PROTEIN 4 Kcal/g FAT 9 Kcal/g ALCOHOL 7 Kcal/g) ENERGY SOURCES Build new compounds Nerve transmission Muscular movement Ion balance What is a Calorie? Measurement of energy "the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius" 1,000 calories = 1 Kcal = 1 (food) Calorie Improving Our Diets Monitor energy intake Salt (sodium) in moderation Alcohol in moderation Fat in moderation Adequate fluids Eat 5-A-Day Use supplements wisely, if at all Mealtime is a social time Healthy People 2010 www.health.gov/healthypeople Promote healthy lifestyle Reduce preventable deaths and diseases Reduce obesity in adults and children Increase intake of fruits, vegetables and whole grain products Lower intake of fat, saturated fats and sodium Increase intake of calcium and iron Philosophy That Works "Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food" Variety Choose different foods Do not overeat any single type of food Control portion size Balanced Moderation Nutrient Density Nutrient Dense Comparison of vitamin and mineral content with number of Kcals Nutrient dense foods have few calories and higher amounts of certain nutrients Example: fresh orange Empty calorie foods have higher calories with limited nutrients Example: orange-flavored candy Comparison of Nutrient Density Energy Density A comparison of the caloric content of a food with the weight of the food Energy Density Low and very low energy density foods Foods which have lots of fiber and water Encourage these foods Generally foods high in fat, sugar and calories Should limit these foods and limit portion size Medium and high energy density foods States of Nutritional Health Desirable Nutritional Health Intake meets the body's needs Maintain body weight Ideally you want to consume as much as you expend (burn each day) Undernutrition Intake is below the body's needs Stores are depleted Health declines Example: Osteoporosis may be due to lack of Calcium Scurvy classic deficiency of vitamin C Overnutrition Intake exceeds the body's needs Long term risk Obesity, Heart Disease, Cancer Many common diseases today are related to overnutrition Guidelines For Planning Healthy Diets: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans Published by USDA and DHHS Created to promote: Optimal nutrient intakes and diet composition Adequate vitamin and mineral intakes Reduce the risk of chronic diseases Intended for healthy children (>2 yrs) and adults New Food Guide Pyramid (2010) ChooseMyPlate.gov "Old" Food Guide Pyramid (2005) - MyPyramid.gov, "Steps to a Healthier You" Characteristics of MyPyramid: Included activity Emphasized moderation and variety Personalization Listed foods in more measurable amounts 27 Food Guide Pyramid Activity Person climbing the stairs Moderation Narrowing of each food group from top to bottom Wider base = foods with little or no added fat and sugar Example: Whole wheat bread Narrowing top = foods with more added fat and sugar Example: Muffin Food Guide Pyramid Proportionality Different widths of each food group Widths suggest how much to eat from each group Example: eat more fruits (larger band), eat less fats (narrow band) Variety 6 color bands Represent different food groups Portion Sizes Using the Pyramid Choose low-fat/non-fat options Include plant proteins several times a week Include dark green vegetables every day Include vitamin C-rich foods every day Choose whole-grain products Include plant oils daily Eat fish at least twice a week Featured Consumer Message September - December 2011 "Make half your plate fruits and vegetables" Three reasons support the recommendation for Americans to eat more vegetables and fruits 1. 2. 3. First, most vegetables and fruits are major contributors of a number of nutrients that are underconsumed in the United States, including folate, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and vitamins A, C, and K Second, consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with reduced risk of many chronic diseases Third, most vegetables and fruits, when prepared without added fats or sugars, are relatively low in calories (Eating them instead of higher calorie foods can help adults and children achieve and maintain a healthy weight) The Food Guidance System Translates science into practical terms Helps people meet their nutritional needs For carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins & minerals Suggests a pattern of food choices Incorporates foundations of a healthy diet: Variety, balance, moderation The Food Guidance System Not for children under the age of 2 Each food is deficient in at least one essential nutrient Variety is the key Calorie and nutrient content may vary within a food group Food Guidance - 2010 www.ChooseMyPlate.gov Check out website for detailed information Website will provide specific recommendations for your age and gender Evaluating Our Average Diet Does not meet the recommended servings Very few Americans consume the amounts of vegetables recommended as part of a healthy eating pattern For almost all Americans ages 2 years and older, the usual intake falls below amounts recommended Consume only 2-3 vegetables/day (vs. 3-5 recommended) Consume only 1-2 fruits/day (vs. 2-4 servings recommended) Excessive in fats, oils & sweet foods Advice from the American Dietetic Association Be realistic, make small changes Be adventurous, try new foods Be flexible, balance sweets and fatty foods with physical activities Be sensible, watch portions Be active daily Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) Ongoing and collaborative effort Health Canada and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Standards Under the DRI The Recommended Dietary Allowances "Recommended intakes of nutrients that meet the needs of almost all healthy people of similar age and gender"---- the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences Standards for Food Labeling DRIs are gender and age specific FDA developed the Daily Values Generic standard used on food labels Allow for comparison DRV for 2000 Kcal Food Component Fat Sat. Fat Protein Cholesterol Carbohydrate Fiber Sodium Potassium DRV - 2000 Kcal < 65 g < 20 g 50 g < 300 mg 300 g 25 g < 2400 mg 3500 mg Food Labels Food Labels Foods that must be labeled: Food with > 1 ingredient Processed foods Dietary supplements Exempt Foods: Foods in small packages Example: Package of life savers Fresh fruits and vegetables Food from local bakeries Food Label Must Have: Product name Name and address of manufacturer Weight or measure Ingredient list Standard serving size (FDA) similar for similar products (ex. Ice Cream) Number of servings per package What Food Requires a Label? Nearly all packaged foods and processed meat products Health claims Fresh fruit, vegetable, raw single ingredient meal, poultry, fish are voluntary Nutrition Facts Panel Nutrition Facts Panel Mandatory Information Fat grams Saturated fat Cholesterol Sodium Total carbohydrate Trans fat Dietary fiber Sugars Protein vitamins A & C Calcium & iron Nutrition Facts Panel Voluntary Information Polyunsaturated fat Monounsaturated fats Potassium Soluble fiber Nutrition Facts Panel % Daily Value Fat, carbohydrate, protein, cholesterol and saturated fat Based on 2000 Kcal diet DRV for 2000 kcal Food Component Fat Sat. Fat Protein Cholesterol Carbohydrate Fiber Sodium Potassium DRV - 2000 kcal < 65 g < 20 g 50 g < 300 mg 300 g 25 g < 2400 mg 3500 mg What is NOT Required on a Label? % Daily Value for protein (for foods intended for 4 yrs. or older) Protein deficiency is rare Procedure to determine protein quality is expensive Enrichment Replacement of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron lost when grains are refined Amount of vitamins or minerals added must be listed on the food labels Example: Rice Fortification Addition of one or more vitamins and/or minerals to a food product Example: calcium to orange juice Amount of vitamins or minerals added must be listed on the food labels Common Allergic Ingredients The Food Allergen and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) Requires food manufacturers to identify, in plain, common language, the presence of any of the eight major food allergens (milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, wheat and soy) Organic No synthetic fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides used in last 2-3 years 100% organic = must have 95-100% certified organic ingredients Organic = must have at least 70% certified organic ingredients Made with organic ingredients = organic ingredients can be listed on side panel Irradiation Food exposed to gamma rays (radiation) Also called cold pasteurization Irradiation Why? Problems in food supply: Food borne illnesses: E. coli, Salmonella Increase in pesticides Food lost to pests and decay Irradiation Benefits Prevent ripening, sprouting (increased shelf life) Kills molds, insects and bacteria Irradiation Fears Food radioactive untrue Effects on nutrients minor nutrient losses Unsafe to eat untrue Danger to plant workers, environment Common Irradiated Foods Spices Chicken Grains Fresh fruit Medical supplies Irradiation and Food Labels Foods treated with irradiation will have one of the following: "treated with irradiation" "treated with radiation" Symbol - Radura Health Claims Folate and neural tube defects Oat bran and a decreased risk for CVD (cardiovascular disease) Calcium and osteoporosis Fiber and cancer Fiber and CVD Low fat and reduced risk of some cancers Fat/saturated fat and reduced risk of CVD Low sodium/high potassium and decreased risk for HTN (hypertension) Diet rich in fruits and vegetables and decreased risk of some cancers Soy protein may reduce risk of CVD Fish oils and reduced risk of CVD Plant stanols and reduced risk of CVD Health Claims No health claims for foods high in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium Example: whole milk vs. fat-free milk Both are high in calcium Whole milk is high in fat = No health claim Skim milk can have a health claim Health Claims Nutrition Terms - Examples Fat Free = < 0.5 g of fat per serving High = 20% of the daily value for a particular nutrient Low fat = 3 g or less of fat per serving Symbols Whole Grain Council Stamp 100% = all grains are whole grains Basic stamp Contains at least 8 g (half serving) of whole grains Symbols (cont) Heart Check Symbol Meets the American Heart Association certification criteria (low in saturated fat and cholesterol) Symbols (cont) NuVal System Food scoring system Score from 1 to 100 The higher the score the healthier the choice Looks at more than 30 nutrients Looks at the quality of the nutrients Symbols (cont) Eat Smart, Drink Smart Meet healthy eating criteria based on U.S. Dietary Guidelines Symbols (cont) Sensible Solutions Symbol Contains limited amounts of calories, fat, sodium and sugar Meets 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans criteria ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Ask a homework question - tutors are online