atoms - Solomon's Study Notes General Chemistry 1 Fall 2011...

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S olomon’s Study Notes General Chemistry 1 Fall 2011 Solomon Weiskop PhD [ Atoms ] General Chemistry 1
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Study Notes & Practice Problems are available to print out by registering at www.solomonlinetutor.com Solomon Weiskop PhD © Copyright 2011 All Rights Reserved
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1 1. Matter The “stuff” our world is made of is called Matter. Matter comes in about a hundred basic varieties called Elements. Each element has a name and a “chemical symbol”. Here are a few of them: Note: All the Elements are classified in a very useful way in the Periodic Table (discussed in detail in Sec. 9 of these Study Notes). 2. Atoms The smallest “building block” of an element is called an atom . Atoms are incredibly small. For example, a speck of Carbon the size of a period at the end of a sentence contains more Carbon atoms than there are stars in the Milky Way galaxy. . The atoms of any particular element are different from the atoms of any other element. That is, a Carbon atom is different from a Hydrogen atom etc. In what way are Carbon atoms and Hydrogen atoms different? To answer this question, I must teach you something about the underlying structure of atoms… Element Chemical Symbol Hydrogen H Helium He Carbon C Nitrogen N Sodium Na Potassium K Iron Fe More atoms here than the approximately 200 billion stars in the Milky Way!
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2 3. Subatomic Particles Atoms are incredibly small. Yet they have an inner structure. They are composed of even smaller things, the so- called “subatomic particles” (namely: electrons, protons, neutrons) which I will now describe. Electrons protons and neutrons all possess a fundamental property of matter: they have Mass . Mass is the fundamental property of matter that endows things with ”inertia” (it also enables things to feel and to exert gravitational forces). The mass of a proton and the mass of a neutron are about the same (although not exactly) ±²³´³µ ¶·¶ µ¸¹´²³µ ¶· º¶»¼½ Here I have introduced a convenient small unit of mass, the “atomic mass unit” (amu). It is a tiny tiny fraction of a gram º¶»¼½¶¾¶¿ÀÁÁ¶Â¶ºÃ ÄÅÆ ¶Ç (i.e. about a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a gram!) The amu unit of mass is convenient for describing masses of subatomic particles and other very small things. [Note: Another commonly-used abbreviation for atomic mass unit is ¹ .] So protons and neutrons each have a mass of about 1 amu. Electrons, on the other hand, are quite a bit smaller. The mass of an electron is about 1820 times smaller than a proton or neutron mass ¸È¸É´²³µ ¾¶ º¶»¼½ ºÊÅà ¶¶¾¶À ÃÃÃË˶»¼½
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3 Electrons and protons also possess another fundamental property of matter: they have Electric Charge . Electric Charge is the fundamental property of matter that enables things to feel and to exert Electric Forces.
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atoms - Solomon's Study Notes General Chemistry 1 Fall 2011...

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