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chapter 12 - Learning Objectives Define power and review...

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Learning Objectives * Define power and review the bases of individual power. * Explain how people obtain power in organizations. * Discuss the concept of empowerment. * Review various influence tactics . * Provide a profile of power seekers. * Explain strategic contingencies and discuss how subunits obtain power. * Define organizational politics and discuss its various forms. * Define ethics and review the ethical dilemmas that managers face. * Define sexual harassment and discuss what organizations can do to prevent it and how they should respond to allegations. What Is Power? * Power is the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence. * It is not always perceived or exercised. * It does not imply a poor relationship between the powerholder and the target of power. * Power can flow in any direction in an organization. * Power applies to both individuals and groups. The Bases of Individual Power * Power can be found in the position one occupies in an organization or the resources that one is able to command. * There are five bases of individual power: * Legitimate power * Reward power * Coercive power
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* Referent power * Expert power Legitimate Power * Power derived from a person’s position or job in an organization. * It is based on one’s authority and level in an organization’s hierarchy. * Legitimate power works because people have been socialized to accept its influence. Reward Power * Power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes. * It corresponds to the concept of positive reinforcement. * Any organizational member can attempt to exert influence over others with praise, compliments, and flattery. Coercive Power * Power derived from the use of punishment and threat. * Lower-level organizational members can also apply their share of coercion. * When managers use coercive power, it is generally ineffective and can provoke considerable employee resistance. Referent Power * Power derived from being well liked by others. * It stems from identification with the powerholder. * Referent power is available to anyone in an organization who is well liked. * Interpersonal relations often permit influence to extend across the organization, outside the usual channels of legitimate authority, reward, and coercion. Expert Power * Power derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by
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an organization. * Expert power corresponds to difficulty of replacement. * Expert power is a valuable asset for managers. * Of all the bases of power, expertise is most consistently associated with employee effectiveness. * Employees perceive women managers as more likely than male managers to be high in expert power. Employee Responses to Bases of Power * Employees are likely to have the following response to each base of managerial power: * Coercive power   Resistance * Reward power   Compliance * Legitimate power   Compliance * Expert power   Commitment * Referent power   Commitment How Do People Obtain Power?
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